, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 5-38
Date: 21 Feb 2007

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Neuropsychological Perspective Towards DSM-V

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Abstract

Neuropsychological methods and techniques have much to offer in the evaluation of the individual suspected as having Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a review of the historical evolution of the ADHD concept, incidence and prevalence, and DSM-IV criteria for diagnosis, especially as regards omission related to gender differences, and other associated cultural, familial, socioenvironmental, and subject influences, this paper describes a number of dilemmas and obstacles encountered in clinical practice. Included are the confounds associated with the wide range of possible comorbidities, the insufficiency of current DSM-IV criteria, the emergence of subtype differentiation and its impact on diagnosis and treatment. The complex relationship between neuropsychological constructs and ADHD, and obstacles to valid assessment are also addressed. The complexities associated with a thorough ADHD evaluation are viewed within an impressive and expansive existing scientific framework and recommendations are made for future directions.