Original Paper

Neurochemical Research

, Volume 38, Issue 8, pp 1580-1589

First online:

Glia Maturation Factor Expression in Hippocampus of Human Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Deirdre StolmeierAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
  • , Ramasamy ThangavelAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and ClinicsVeterans Affair Health Care System
  • , Poojya AnantharamAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
  • , Mohammad M. KhanAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
  • , Duraisamy KempurajAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and ClinicsVeterans Affair Health Care System
  • , Asgar ZaheerAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and ClinicsVeterans Affair Health Care System Email author 

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Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of neuropathological lesions containing amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) associated with neuroinflammation and neuronal degeneration. Hippocampus is one of the earliest and severely damaged areas in AD brain. Glia maturation factor (GMF), a known proinflammatory molecule is up-regulated in AD. Here, we have investigated the expression and distribution of GMF in relation to the distribution of APs and NFTs in the hippocampus of AD brains. Our immunohistochemical results showed GMF is expressed specifically in the vicinity of high density of APs and NFTs in the hippocampus of AD patients. Moreover, reactive astrocytes and activated microglia surrounds the APs and NFTs. We further demonstrate that GMF immunoreactive glial cells were increased at the sites of Tau containing NFTs and APs of hippocampus in AD brains. In conclusion, up-regulated expression of GMF in the hippocampus, and the co-localization of GMF and thioflavin-S stained NFTs and APs suggest that GMF may play important role in the pathogenesis of AD.

Keywords

Alzheimer’s disease Amyloid plaques Glial fibrillary acidic protein Glia maturation factor Hippocampus Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1