, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 218-225
Date: 20 Oct 2012

Enhanced Expression of Glia Maturation Factor Correlates with Glial Activation in the Brain of Triple Transgenic Alzheimer’s Disease Mice

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


We previously demonstrated that glia maturation factor (GMF), a brain specific protein, isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory, induce expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the central nervous system. We also reported that the up-regulation of GMF in astrocytes leads to the destruction of neurons suggesting a novel pathway of GMF-mediated cytotoxicity of brain cells, and implicated its involvement in the pathogenesis of inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we examined the expressions of GMF in triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTg-AD) mice. Our results show a 13-fold up-regulation of GMF and 8–12-fold up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and C–X–C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10/IP-10) mRNA as determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in the brain of 3xTg-AD mice as compared to non-transgenic (Non-Tg) mice. In conclusion, the increase in GMF and cytokine/chemokine expression was correlated with reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein positive astrocytes and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)-positive microglia in 3xTg-AD mice.