Release of Endogenous Amino Acids from the Striatum from Developing and Adult Mice in Ischemia
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- Oja, S.S. & Saransaari, P. Neurochem Res (2011) 36: 1444. doi:10.1007/s11064-011-0470-x
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In most other studies the release of amino acid neurotransmitters and modulators in vitro has been studied mostly using labeled preloaded compounds. For several reasons the estimated release may not reliably reflect the release of endogenous compounds. The magnitudes of the release cannot thus be quite correctly estimated using radioactive labels. The basal and K+-evoked release of the neuroactive endogenous amino acids γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), glycine, taurine, glutamate and aspartate was now studied in slices from the striatum from 7-day-old to 3-month-old mice under control (normoxic) and ischemic conditions. The release of alanine, threonine and serine was assessed as control. GABA and glutamate release was much greater in 3-month-old than in 7-day-old mice, whereas with taurine the situation was the opposite. Ischemia markedly enhanced the release of all these three amino acids. The release of aspartate and glycine was markedly enhanced as well whereas no effects were discernible in the release of glutamine, alanine, serine and threonine. K+ stimulation (50 mM) enhanced the release of GABA, glutamate, taurine, aspartate and glycine in most cases, except with taurine in 3-month-old mice under the ischemic conditions and with aspartate in 7-day-old mice under the control conditions. K+ stimulation did not affect the release of glutamine, alanine, serine or threonine. The results on endogenous amino acids are qualitatively similar to those obtained in our earlier experiments with labeled preloaded amino acids. In conclusion, in developing mice only inhibitory taurine is released in such amounts that may counteract the harmful effects of excitatory amino acids in ischemia.