, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 795-803
Date: 28 Jun 2006

Treatment and Prophylaxis of Anthrax by New Neurosecretory Cytokines

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In 1881, Louis Pasteur described the Bacillus anthracis vaccine, which plays an important role for the treatment and prophylaxis of anthrax. Currently, treatment for anthrax infection involves the use of several different antibiotics, used in combination with vaccines, which possess potential virulence in white mice and guinea pigs. We discovered several new immunomodulators cytokines (polypeptides) produced by the neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus, some of which can be used as drugs for the treatment and prophylaxis of the anthrax. The proline-rich polypeptides, which consist from 10 to 15 amino acids and four proline residues, are of the special interest; one of them (PRP-1), which consist of 15 amino acids and has the following primary structure ALa-GLy-ALa-Pro-GLu-Pro-Ala-GLu-Pro-Ala-GLn-Pro-GLy-Val-Tyr (AGAPEPAEPAQPGVY) possesses antibacterial activity, and a new proline-rich peptide described by Galoyan and called G x -NH2. Both were tested for treatment against the anthrax bacillus or anthrax strain N55 vaccine in guinea pigs and mice in vivo, and in vitro preparations. The results of experiments show that these hypothalamic neurosecretory cytokines have a strong prophylaxis and therapeutic properties towards animals infected by episodic strain of anthrax and anthrax vaccine N55. The conventional concepts concerning the function of hypothalamic neurosecretion and hypothalamic mechanisms of adaptation have to be reconsidered.