Virgil in Tudor Dress: In Search of a Noble Vernacular
- Massimiliano Morini
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Alongside the Bible, the Aeneid was the most important single text of the English (and British) Renaissance. A vast number of translators felt the need to grapple with Virgil’s epic, and the omnipresent Books II and IV appeared in a great many versions and were adapted for a variety of literary purposes. This centrality meant that all translators were aware of the difficulty of their task, as well as of the painstaking accuracy that informed readers would exercise on their efforts. The language each translator chose, in particular, would be scrutinized for its appropriateness—given the common opinion of Virgil’s Latin as noble and dignified in the highest degree. Therefore, studying the English history of the Aeneid is essential not only for translation theorists, but also for language historians: each consecutive version records its translator’s ideas on the appropriate diction for epic poetry, and the critical reactions to each version reflect widespread opinions on how to make English as noble and dignified as Virgil’s Latin. From Douglas’s racy Scots to Dryden’s aureate English, from the battle between Archaizers and Neologizers to the definitive triumph of Latinized poetic diction, all the linguistic developments and conflicts of early English modernity are contained in nuce in the English versions of Virgil.
- Arblaster, P. (2004). Antwerp & the world. Richard Verstegan and the international culture of Catholic reformation. Leuven: Leuven University Press.
- Austin, R. G. (1956). Some English translations of Virgil. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
- Bawcutt, P. (1974). Douglas and Surrey: Translators of Virgil. Essays and Studies, 27, 52–67.
- Blyth, C. R. (1963/1987). ‘The knychtlyke stile’: A study of Gavin Douglas’ Aeneid. New York-London: Garland Publishing.
- Bruni, L. (1996). In P. Viti (Ed), Opere letterarie e politiche. Torino: Utet.
- Cattaneo, A. (1990). Tecniche traduttive nell’Umanesimo inglese. L’Eneide in Gran Bretagna da Lydgate a Surrey. Brescia: Editrice La Scuola.
- Conley, C. H. (1927). The first English translators of the classics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
- Cummings, R., & Martindale, C. (2007). Jonson’s Virgil: Surrey and Phaer. Translation and Literature, 16(1), 66–75. CrossRef
- Denham, J. (1928). The poetical works of Sir John Denham, ed. with notes and an introduction by Theodore Howard Banks, jr. New Haven: Yale University Press.
- Douglas, G. (1950–1964). In Coldwell (Ed.), Virgil’s Aeneid translated into Scottish verse by Gavin Douglas. Edinburgh-London: William Blackwood & Sons.
- Dryden, J. (1697). The works of Virgil. London: Jacob Tonson.
- Greene, R. (1589). Menaphon/Camillas alarum to slumbering Euphues, in his melancholie cell at Silexedra […]. London: for Sampson Clarke.
- Hager, A. (1982). British Virgil: Four Renaissance disguises of the Laocoön passage of book 2 of the ‘Aeneid’. Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900, 22(1), 21–38.
- Hall, J. (1602). Virgidemiarvm sixe bookes. First three bookes, of tooth-lesse satyrs. I. Poeticall. 2. Academicall. 3. Morall. London: Robert Dexter.
- Hoby, T. (1974). The book of the courtier, translated by Sir Thomas Hoby, ed. with an introduction by J. H. Whitfield. London: Dent.
- Holland, P. (1601). The historie of the world, commonly called, the natvrall historie of C. Plinivs Secvndvs. Translated into English by Philemon Holland doctor in physicke. The first tome. London: Adam Islip.
- Howard, H., Earl of Surrey. (1928). In F. M. Padelford (Ed.), The poems of Henry Howard: Earl of Surrey. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
- Lefevere, A. (1998). Translation practice(s) and the circulation of cultural capital: Some Aeneids in English. In S. Bassnett, & A. Lefevere (Eds), Constructing cultures. Essays on literary translation (pp. 41–56). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
- Meres, F. (1598). Palladis Tamia. Wits Treasury Being the Second Part of Wits Common wealth. By Francis Meres Maister of Artes of both Vniversities. London: P. Short.
- Moore, J. L. (1910). Tudor-Stuart views on the growth status and destiny of the English language. Halle a.S.: Max Niemeyer.
- Morini, M. (2006). Tudor translation in theory and practice. Aldershot: Ashgate.
- Morini, M. (forthcoming). Teutonic and unmixed: Verstegan’s English. In M. Morini, & R. Zacchi (Eds.), Richard Rowlands Verstegan: A versatile man in an age of turmoil. Turnhout: Brepols.
- Osgood, C. G. (1930), Virgil and the English mind. In J. S. Morgan, & K. McKenzie, & C. G. Osgood (Eds.), The tradition of Virgil. Three papers on the history and influence of the poet (pp. 23–38). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Phaer, T., & Twyne, T. (1987). In S. Lally (Ed.), The Aeneid of Thomas Phaer and Thomas Twyne. A critical edition introducing Renaissance metrical typography. New York-London: Garland Publishing.
- Proudfoot, L. (1960). Dryden’s Aeneid and its seventeenth-century predecessors. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
- Puttenham, G. (1936). In G. D. Willcock, & A. Walker (Eds.), The arte of English poesie. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Richardson, D. A. (1976). Humanistic intent in Surrey’s Aeneid. English Literary Renaissance, 6(2), 204–219. CrossRef
- Ridley, F. A. (1961). Surrey’s debt to Gawin Douglas. PMLA, 76(1), 25–33. CrossRef
- Robinson, D. (Ed.). (1997). Western translation theory from Herodotus to Nietzsche. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.
- Rosier, J. L. (1961). Richard Stanyhurst and 16th-century lexical usage. Studia Neophilologica, 33(1), 115–127. CrossRef
- Stanyhurst, R. (1582). The first foure bookes of Virgil his Aeneis translated intoo English heroical verse by Richard Stanyhurst, wyth oother poëtical diuises theretoo annexed. Leiden: John Pates.
- Steiner, T. R. (Ed.). (1975). English translation theory 1650–1800. Amsterdam: Van Gorcum.
- Taylor, A. B. (1995). Bottom’s ‘hopping’ heart and Thomas Phaer: The influence of the early translators on ‘Pyramus and Thisbe’. Notes and Queries, 42(3), 309–315.
- The Bible. Authorized King James Version with Apocrypha (1997), with an introduction and notes by R. Carroll and S. Prickett. Oxford-New York: Oxford University Press.
- Thomas, R. F. (2001). Virgil and the Augustan reception. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
- Toury, G. (1995). Descriptive translation studies and beyond. Amsterdam, PA: John Benjamins.
- Tudeau-Clayton, M. (1998). Jonson, Shakespeare, and early modern Virgil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Venturi, P. (2009). The translator’s immobility: English modern classics in Italy. Target, 21(2), 333–357. CrossRef
- Venuti, L. (1995). The translator’s invisibility: a history of translation. London-New York: Routledge. CrossRef
- Verstegan, R. R. (1605). A restitution of decayed intelligence: in antiquities. Concerning the most noble and renowmed English nation. Antwerp: Robert Bruney.
- Virgilius Maro, P. (1991). Eneide, trans. L. Canali. Milano: Mondadori.
- Ziosi, A. (2003). Virgilio nel Cinquecento inglese. The Tragedie of Dido Queene of Carthage di Christopher Marlowe. Unpublished PhD dissertation: University of Bologna.
- Virgil in Tudor Dress: In Search of a Noble Vernacular
Volume 97, Issue 3 , pp 591-610
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Early modern England
- English translations
- Cultural capital
- Language history
- Epic language
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Dipartimento di Lingue e Letterature Straniere, University of Udine, Via Mantica 3, 33100, Udine, Italy