, Volume 100, Issue 2, pp 165-176

IL-6 promotion of glioblastoma cell invasion and angiogenesis in U251 and T98G cell lines

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth and survival factor in human glioblastoma cells and plays an important role in malignant progression. However, its role in glioblastoma invasion is still unknown. This study shows how IL-6 promotes cell invasion and migration in U251 and T98G glioblastoma cell lines. The underlying mechanism includes both protease-dependent and -independent manners. Stimulation with IL-6 increased MMP9 expression in the two cell lines but had no influence on MMP2 expression. Fascin-1 is a cell skeleton binding protein and plays a key role in cell migration and invasion. Its binding style directly influences cell morphology and tendency to become deformed. After IL-6 exposure, fascin-1 expression increased in an IL-6 dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence also revealed that the binding style of fascin-1 had changed after IL-6 exposure, resulting in a more invasive phenotype of the cells. Three most commonly emphasized invasion-associated signaling pathways, including JAK-STAT3, p42/44 MAPK, and PI3K/AKT, were verified to further illustrate its underlying mechanism. Only phosphorylation of STAT3 at ser 727 site paralleled the IL-6 stimulation, and JSI-124, a specific JAK-STAT3 pathway blocker, deterred the invasion and migration promotive effect of IL-6, indicating that the JAK/STAT3 pathway mediates signal transduction. Furthermore, IL-6 also acts in a paracrine fashion to promote vascular endothelial cell migration, thus facilitating tumor angiogenesis and invasion. These results suggest that IL-6 promotes glioblastoma cell invasion and angiogenesis and may be a potential anti-invasion target.