Aphalo, P., Rikala, R. 2003Field performance of silver-birch planting-stock grown at different spacing and in containers of different volumeNew Forest2493108CrossRefGoogle Scholar Arnold, M.A., Struve, D.K. 1993Root distribution and mineral uptake of coarse-rooted trees grown in cupric hydroxide-treated containersHortSci.28988992Google Scholar Bayley, A.D., Kietzka, J.W. 1997Stock quality and field performance of Pinus patula seedlings produced under two nursery growing regimes during seven different nursery production periodsNew Forest13341356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BCMOF. 2001. Effects of stock type on seedling performance in the northern interior of British Columbia: twenty year results. Silviculture Note 29. British Columbia Ministry of Forests.
Bigras, F.J., D’Aoust, A.L. 1993Influence of photoperiod on shoot and root frost tolerance and bud phenology of white spruce seedlings (Picea glauca)Can. J. For. Res.23219228Google Scholar Bigras, F.J., Margolis, H.A. 1997Shoot and root sensitivity of containerized black sprucewhite spruceand jack pine seedlings to late fall freezingNew Forest132949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Binder W.D., Scagel R.K. and Krumlik G.J. 1988. Root growth potential: facts, myths, value? In: Landis T.D. (tech. coord.), Proceedings, Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Associations. USDA For. Ser., Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Exp. Stn., Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-167, 227 p.
Bouma, T.J., Nielson, K.L., Koutstaal, B. 2000Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerized analysis of root length and diameterPlant Soil218185196CrossRefGoogle Scholar Brissette, J.C. 1991
Development and function of the root systems of southern pine nursery stockProceedings of the Southern Forest Nursery AssociationMississippi Forestry CommissionBiloxiMS Jackson, MS6781Google Scholar
Burdett, A.N. 1979A nondestructive method for measuring the volume of intact plant partsCan. J. For. Res.9120122Google Scholar Burdett, A.N. 1987Understanding root growth capacity: theoretical considerations in assessing planting stock quality by means of root growth testsCan. J. For. Res.17768775Google Scholar Burdett, A.N. 1990Physiological processes in plantation establishment and development of specification for forest planting stockCan. J. For. Res.20415427Google Scholar Burdett, A.N., Simpson, D.G., Thompson, C.F. 1983Root development and plantation establishment successPlant Soil71103110Google Scholar Burdett, A.N., Herring, L.J., Thompson, C.F. 1984Early growth of planted spruceCan. J.␣For. Res.14644651Google Scholar
Burr K.E. 1990. The target seedling concept: bud dormancy and cold hardiness. In: Rose R., Cambell S.J. and Landis T.D. Proceedings of the Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Associations. USDA For. Ser., Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Exp. Stn., Gen Tec. Rep. RM-200, pp. 79–90.
Burr, K.E., Tinus, R.W., Wallner, S.J., King, R.M. 1990Comparison of three cold hardiness tests for conifer seedlingsTree Phys.6351369Google Scholar Canham, C.D., Kobe, R.K., Latty, E.F., Chazdon, R.L. 1999Interspecific and intraspecific variation in tree seedling survival: effects of allocation to roots versus carbohydrate reservesOecologia121111CrossRefGoogle Scholar Carlson, W.C. 1986Root system considerations in the quality of loblolly pine seedlingsSouth. J.␣Appl. For.108792Google Scholar Chavasse, C.G.R. 1977The significance of planting height as an indicator of subsequent seedling growthNew Zeal. J. For.22283296Google Scholar Chiatante, D., Di Iorio, A., Scippa, G.S., Sarnataro, M. 2002Improving vigour assessment of pine (Pinus nigra Arnold)Plant Biosyst.136209216Google Scholar Columbo, S.J., Glerum, C. 1984Winter injury to shoots as it affects root activity in black spruce container seedlingsCan. J. For. Res.143132Google Scholar Costa, C., Dwyer, L.M., Hamal, C., Muamba, D.F., Wang, X.L., Nantais, L., Smith, D.L. 2001Root contrast enhancement for measurement with optical scanner-based image analysisCan. J. Bot.792329CrossRefGoogle Scholar Crunkilton, D.D., Pallardy, S.G., Garrett, H.E. 1992Water relations and gas exchange of northern red oak seedlings planted in a central Missouri clearcut and shelterwoodFor. Ecol. Manage.53117129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis A.S. 2003. Performance of northern red oak under adverse conditions. MS Thesis. Purdue University, 111 pp.
Deans, J.D., Lundberg, C., Cannell, M.G.R., Murray, M.B., Sheppard, L.J. 1990aRoot system fibrosity of Sitka spruce transplants: relationship with root growth potentialForestry6317Google Scholar Deans, J.D., Lundberg, C., Tabbush, P.M., Cannell, M.G.R., Sheppard, L.J., Murray, M.B. 1990bThe influence of desiccation, rough handling, and cold storage on the quality and establishment of Sitka spruce planting stockForestry63129141Google Scholar Dey, D.C., Parker, W.C. 1997Morphological indicators of stock quality and field performance of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings underplanted in a central Ontario shelterwoodNew Forest14145156CrossRefGoogle Scholar Dickson, A., Leaf, A.L., Hosner, J.F. 1960Quality appraisal of white spruce and white pine seedling stock in nurseriesFor. Chron.361013Google Scholar Dixon, R.K., Pallardy, S.G., Garrett, H.E., Cox, G.S. 1983Comparative water relations of container-grown and bare-root ectomycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Quercus velutina seedlingsCan. J. Bot.6115591565Google Scholar Dunsworth, G.B. 1997Plant quality assessment: an industrial perspectiveNew Forest13431440CrossRefGoogle Scholar Duryea, M.L. 1985
Evaluating seedling quality: importance to reforestationDuryea, M.L. eds. Evaluating Seedling Quality: Principles, Procedures, and Predictive Abilities of Major TestsForest Research Laboratory, Oregon State UniversityCorvallis16Google Scholar
FAO.2001State of the World’s Forests 2001United NationsRomeItalyGoogle Scholar Farmer, R.E.,Jr. 1978Seasonal carbohydrate levels in roots of Appalachian hardwood planting stockTree Plantersȁ9 Notes292224Google Scholar Ferreira Reis, M. das G., Kimmins, J.P. 1986Importancia do sistema radicular no crescimento inicial de brotos de Eucalyptus sppRevista Arvore10196201Google Scholar Folk, R.S., Grossnickle, S.C. 1997Determining field performance potential with the use of limiting environmental conditionsNew Forest13121138CrossRefGoogle Scholar Funk, D.T. 1971Pot sizepot shapeand soil mix all influence black walnut seedling growthPlant Propagator171012Google Scholar Gazal, R.M., Kubiske, M.E. 2004Influence of initial root length on physiological responses of cherrybark oak and Shumard oak seedlings to field drought conditionsFor. Ecol. Manage.189295305CrossRefGoogle Scholar Genere, B., Garriou, D. 1999Stock quality and field performance of Douglas-fir seedlings under varying degrees of water stressAnn. For. Sci.56501510Google Scholar Genere, B., Garriou, D., Omarzad, O., Grivet, J.P., Hagege, D. 2004Effect of a strong cold storage induced desiccation on metabolic solutes, stock quality and regrowthin seedlings of two oak speciesTrees: Struct. Funct.18559565Google Scholar
Grossnickle S.C. 2005. The importance of root growth in overcoming planting stress. New Forest in-press.
Grossnickle, S.C., Folk, R.S. 1993Stock quality assessment: forecasting survival or performance on a reforestation siteTree Planters 9 Notes44113121Google Scholar Haase, D.L., Rose, R. 1993Soil moisture stress induces transplant shock in stored and unstored 2 + 0 Douglas-fir seedlings of varying root volumeFor. Sci.39275294Google Scholar Hartley, M.J. 2002Rationale and methods for conserving biodiversity in plantation forestsFor. Ecol. Manage.1558195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins C.D.B. and Binder W.D. 1990. State of the art seedling stock quality tests based on seedling physiology. In: Rose R., Cambell S.J. andLandis T.D. Proceedings of the Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Associations. USDA For. Ser., Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Exp. Stn., Gen Tec. Rep. RM-200, pp. 91–121.
Jacobs, D.F., Rose, R., Haase, D.L., Alzugaray, P.O. 2004Fertilization at planting inhibits root system development and drought avoidance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlingsAnn. For. Sci.61643652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobs D.F., Salifu K.F. and Seifert J.R. 2005. Relative contribution of initial root and shoot morphology in predicting field performance of hardwood seedlings. New Forests in press.
Jacobs D.F., Salifu K.F. and Davis A.S. Drought susceptibility and recovery of transplanted Quercus rubra seedlings in relation to root system morphology. 9th Workshop on Seedling Physiology and Growth Problems in Oak Plantings. West LafayetteINUSA 19–20 October 2004, USDA For. Ser., North Central Research Station, in press.
Kainer, K.A., Duryea, M.L. 1990Root wrenching and lifting date of slash pine: effects on morphology, survival, and growthNew Forest4207221CrossRefGoogle Scholar Kormanik, P.P. 1986Lateral root morphology as an expression of sweetgum seedling qualityFor. Sci.32595604Google Scholar Larson, M.M. 1975Pruning northern red oak seedlings: effects on root regeneration and early growthCan. J. For. Res.5381386Google Scholar Larsen, H.S., South, D.B., Boyer, J.M. 1986Root growth potential, seedling morphology and bud dormancy correlate with survival of loblolly pine seedlings planted in December in AlabamaTree Phys.1253263Google Scholar Levy, P.E., McKay, H.M. 2003Assessing tree seedling vitality tests using sensitivity analysis of a process-based growth modelFor. Ecol. Manage.1837793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lopushinsky W. and Beebe T. 1976. Relationship of shoot–root ratio to survival and growth of outplanted Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine seedlings. USDA For. Ser. Research NotePacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station PNW-274, 7 p.
Marshall, J.D. 1985
Carbohydrate status as a measure of seedling qualityDuryea, M.L. eds. Evaluating Seedling Quality: Principles, Procedures, and Predictive Abilities of Major TestsForest Research Laboratory, Oregon State UniversityCorvallis4958Google Scholar
Mattsson, A. 1997Predicting field performance using seedling quality assessmentNew Forest13227252CrossRefGoogle Scholar McKay, H.M. 1992Electrolyte leakage from fine roots of conifer seedlings: a rapid index of plant vitality following cold storageCan. J. For. Res.2213711377Google Scholar McKay, H.M. 1997A review of the effect of stresses between lifting and planting on nursery stock quality and performanceNew Forest13369399CrossRefGoogle Scholar McKay, H.M. 1998Root electrolyte leakage and root growth potential as indicators of spruce and larch establishmentSilva Fenn.32241252Google Scholar McKay, H.M, White, I.M.S. 1997Fine root electrolyte leakage and moisture content: indices␣of Sitka spruce and Douglas-fir seedling performance after desiccationNew Forest13139162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller S. 1999. Successful tree planting techniques for drastically disturbed lands: a case study of the propagation and planting of container-grown oak and nut trees in Missouri. In: Vories K.C. and Throgmorton D. Proceedings of Enhancement of Reforestation at Surface Coal Mines: Technical Interactive ForumUS Department of InteriorOffice of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois and Coal Research CenterUniversity of Southern Illinois, CarbondaleIllinois, pp. 157–172.
Mohammed, G.H. 1997The status and future of stock quality testingNew Forest13491514CrossRefGoogle Scholar Morrison, I.K., Armson, K.A. 1968The Rhizometer – a new device for measuring roots of tree seedlingsFor. Chron.442123Google Scholar Nambiar, E.K.S. 1980Root configuration and root regeneration of Pinus radiata seedlingsNew Zeal. J. For. Sci.10249263Google Scholar Nambiar, E.K.S., Sands, R. 1993Competition for water and nutrients in forestsCan. J. For. Res.2319551968Google Scholar Noland, T.L., Mohammed, G.H., Wagner, R.G. 2001Morphological characteristics associated with tolerance to competition from herbaceous vegetation for seedlings of jack pineblack spruceand white pineNew Forest21199215CrossRefGoogle Scholar O’Reilly, C., Harper, C., Keane, M. 2002Influence of physiological condition at the time of lifting on the cold storage tolerance and field performance of ash and sycamoreForestry75112CrossRefGoogle Scholar Pandey, D., Ball, J. 1998The role of industrial plantations in future global fibre suppliesUnasylva1933743Google Scholar Ponder, F.,Jr. 2000Survival and growth of planted hardwoods in harvested openings with first-order lateral root differences, root dipping, and tree sheltersNorth. J. Appl. For.174550Google Scholar Puttonen, P. 1989Criteria for using seedling performance potential testsNew Forest36787CrossRefGoogle Scholar Puttonen, P. 1997Looking for the 8 silver bullet 9 – can one test do it all?New Forest13927CrossRefGoogle Scholar Racey, G.D., Glerum, C., Hutchinson, R.E. 1983The practicality of top-root ratio in nursery stock characterizationFor. Chron.59240243Google Scholar Racey, G.D. 1985A comparison of plating stock characterization with root area index, volumeand dry weightFor. Chron.616470Google Scholar Radoglou, K., Raftoyannis, Y. 2001Effects of desiccation and freezing on vitality and field performance of broadleaved tree speciesAnn. For. Sci.585968CrossRefGoogle Scholar Radoglou, K., Raftoyannis, Y. 2002The impact of storagedesiccation and planting date on seedling quality and survival of woody plant speciesForestry75179190CrossRefGoogle Scholar Rietveld, W.J. 1989Transplanting stress in bareroot conifer seedlings: its development and progression to establishmentNorth. J. Appl. For.699107Google Scholar Rigney, M.P., Kranzler, G.A. 1997Machine vision for conifer seedling quality controlNew Forest135162CrossRefGoogle Scholar Ritchie, G.A., Dunlap, J.R. 1980Root growth potential – its development and expression in forest tree seedlingsNew Zeal. J. For. Sci.10218248Google Scholar Ritchie, G.A. 1984
Assessing seedling qualityDuryea, M.L.Landis, T.D. eds. Forest Nursery Manual: Production of Bareroot SeedlingsForest Research Laboratory, Oregon State UniversityCorvallis243259Google Scholar
Rose R., Carlson W.C. and Morgan P. 1990. The target seedling concept. In: Rose R., Cambell S.J. and Landis T.D. Proceedings of the Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Associations. USDA For. Ser., Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Exp. Stn., Gen Tec. Rep. RM-200, pp. 1–8.
Rose, R., Atkinson, M., Gleason, J., Sabin, T. 1991aRoot volume as a grading criterion to improve field performance of Douglas-fir seedlingsNew Forest5195209CrossRefGoogle Scholar Rose, R., Gleason, J., Atkinson, M., Sabin, T. 1991bGrading ponderosa pine seedlings for outplanting according to their root volumeWestern J. Appl. For.61115Google Scholar Rose, R., Atkinson, M., Gleason, J., Haase, D. 1992Nursery morphology and preliminary comparison of 3-year field performance of 1 + 0 and 2 + 0 bareroot ponderosa pine seedlingsTree Planters 9 Notes43153158Google Scholar Rose, R., Haase, D.L., Kroiher, F., Sabin, T. 1997Root volume and growth of ponderosa pine␣and Douglass-fir seedlings: a summary of eight growing seasonsWestern J. Appl. For.126973Google Scholar
Ruehle J.L. and Kormanik P.P. 1986. Lateral root morphology: a potential indicator of seedling␣quality in northern red oak. USDA For. Ser., Southeastern Forest Exp. Sta., Research Note6 pp.
Salifu, K.F., Timmer, V.R. 2001Nutrient retranslocation response of Picea mariana seedlings to nitrogen supplySoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.65905913Google Scholar Sampson, P.H., Templeton, C.W.G., Colombo, S.J. 1997An overview of Ontario’s stock quality assessment programNew Forest13469487CrossRefGoogle Scholar Schultz, R.C., Thompson, J.R. 1990Nursery cultural practices that improve hardwood seedling root morphologyTree Plantersȁ9 Notes412132Google Scholar Schultz, R.C., Thompson, J.R. 1997Effect of density control and undercutting on root morphology of 1 + 0 bareroot hardwood seedlings: five-year field performance of root-graded stock in central USANew Forest13297310CrossRefGoogle Scholar Simpson, D.G. 1990Frost hardiness, root growth capacity, and field performance relationships in interior sprucelodgepole pineDouglas-firand western hemlock seedlingsCan. J. For. Res.20566572Google Scholar Simpson, D.G., Thompson, C.F., Sutherland, C.D. 1994Field performance of interior spruce seedlings: effects of stress treatments and prediction by root growth potential and needle conductanceCan. J. For. Res.24576586Google Scholar Simpson, D.G., Ritchie, G.A. 1997Does RGP predict field performance? A debateNew Forest13253277CrossRefGoogle Scholar Smit-Spinks, B., Swanson, B.T., Markhart, A.H.,III 1985The effect of photoperiod and thermoperiod on cold acclimation and growth of Pinus sylvestrisCan. J. For. Res.15453460Google Scholar Stone, E.C. 1955Poor survival and the physiological condition of planting stockFor. Sci.19094Google Scholar Stone, E.C., Schubert, G.H. 1959Root regeneration by ponderosa pine seedlings lifted at different times of the yearFor. Sci.5322332Google Scholar Stone, E.C., Jenkinson, J.L. 1971Physiological grading of ponderosa pine nursery stockJ. For.693133Google Scholar Struve, D.K., Joly, R.J. 1992Transplanted red oak seedlings mediate transplant shock by reducing leaf surface area and altering carbon allocationCan. J. For. Res.2214411448Google Scholar Sundström, E., Keane, M. 1999Root architectureearly development and basal sweep in containerized and bare-rooted Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)Plant Soil2176578CrossRefGoogle Scholar Sutton, R.F. 1979Planting stock quality and gradingFor. Ecol. Manage.2123132CrossRefGoogle Scholar Sutton, R.F. 1990Root growth capacity in coniferous forest treesHortSci.25259266Google Scholar Tanaka, Y, Walstad, J.D, Borrecco , J.E. 1976The effect of wrenching on morphology and field performance of Douglas-fir and loblolly pine seedlings Can. J. For. Res.6453458Google Scholar Tanaka, Y., Brotherton, P., Hostetter, S., Chapman, D., Dyce, S., Belanger, J., Johnson, B., Duke, S. 1997The operational planting stock quality testing program at WeyerhaeuserNew Forest13423437CrossRefGoogle Scholar Thompson, B.E. 1985
Seedling morphological evaluation: what you can tell by lookingDuryea, M.L. eds. Evaluating Seedling Quality: Principles, Procedures, and Predictive Ability of Major TestsOregon State UniversityCorvallis, OR5971Google Scholar
Thompson, J.R., Schultz, R.C. 1995Root system morphology of Quercus rubra L. planting stock and 3-year field performance in IowaNew Forest9225236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
USDA-FS. 1999. Tree planting in the US. Available online at: http://www.rngr.net/Reforestation/tpus
von den Driessche, R. 1983Growthsurvival, and physiology of Douglas-fir seedlings following root wrenching and fertilizationCan. J. For. Res.13270278Google Scholar van den Driessche, R. 1987Importance of current photosynthate to new root growth in planted conifer seedlingsCan. J. For. Res.17776782Google Scholar Vyse, A. 1981Growth of young spruce plantations in interior British ColumbiaFor. Chron.57174180Google Scholar Wakeley, P.C. 1949
Physiologic grades of southern pine nursery stockShirley, H.L. eds. Proceedings of the 1948 Society of American Foresters Annual ConventionBoston, MAUSAGoogle Scholar
Ward, J.S., Gent, M.P.N., Stephens, G.R. 2000Effects of planting stock quality and browse protection-type on height growth of northern red oak and eastern white pineFor. Ecol. Manage.127205216CrossRefGoogle Scholar Williams, H.M., South, D.B., Webb, A. 1988Effects of fall irrigation on morphology and root growth potential of loblolly pine seedlings growing in sandSouth Afr. For. J.14715Google Scholar
Wilson B.C. and Jacobs D.F. 2004. Electrolyte leakage from stem tissue as an indicator of hardwood seedling physiological status and hardiness 2004. In: Yaussy D.A., Hix D.M., Long R.P. and Goebel P.C. Proceedings, 14th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. USDA For. Ser., Northeastern Res. Stn., Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-316, pp. 373–380.
Wulster, G.J. 1985A nondestructive method for measuring root system areaHortSci.2010581060Google Scholar