Synthesis of CuInSe2 nanocrystals using a continuous hot-injection microreactor
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- Jin, H.D. & Chang, CH. J Nanopart Res (2012) 14: 1180. doi:10.1007/s11051-012-1180-2
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A very rapid and simple synthesis of CuInSe2 nanocrystals (NCs) was successfully performed using a continuous hot-injection microreactor with a high throughput per reactor volume. It was found that copper-rich CuInSe2 with a sphalerite structure was formed initially followed by the formation of more ordered CuInSe2 at longer reaction times along with the formation of Cu2Se and In2Se3. Binary syntheses were performed and the results show a much faster formation rate of Cu2Se than In2Se3. The rate limiting step in the formation of CuInSe2 is forming the In2Se3 intermediate. Rapid synthesis of stoichiometric CuInSe2 NCs using a continuous-flow microreactor was accomplished by properly adjusting the Cu/In precursor ratio. Tuning the ratio of coordinating solvents can cause size differences from 2.6 to 4.1 nm, bandgaps from 1.1 to 1.3 eV, and different production yields of NCs. The highest production yield as determined by weight was achieved up to 660 mg/h using a microreactor with a small volume of 3.2 cm3.