Engineering solvothermal reactions to produce multi-walled carbon nanotubes
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- Choucair, M., Gong, B. & Stride, J.A. J Nanopart Res (2012) 14: 901. doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0901-x
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Large multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized by the reaction of polytetrafluoroethylene and ethanol with metallic lithium under solvothermal conditions. Production of the MWCNTs depends on a series of coupled reactions that utilize the liberation of chemical energy in the thermodynamically closed system. Various characterization studies show tubes with diameters of 50–150 nm and micrometer lengths. The interwall spacing was found to be 0.39 ± 0.04 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals the tubes are functionalized with up to 2.2 %/wt. fluorine and 6.0 %/wt. oxygen.