, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 55-65
Date: 27 Jun 2008

Nanoparticulate-induced toxicity and related mechanism in vitro and in vivo

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Abstract

In urban areas, the quantity of exhaust particles from vehicle emissions is tremendous and has been regarded as the main contributor to particulate matter (PM) pollution. Recently, the nano-sized PM on public health has begun to raise the attention. The increased toxicity of nanoparticulate can be largely explained by their small size, high airborne concentration, extensive surface area and high content of organic carbon and transition metals. We have attempted to address the toxicity of nano sized-particlulate matter by comparing various particulates including micro-SiO2 (mSiO2), nano-SiO2 (nSiO2), micro-TiO2 (mTiO2), and nano-TiO2 (nTiO2) in RAW264.7 cells and in vivo. The cell viability of all particulates decreased dose dependently. 24-h incubation with nSiO2 demonstrated apoptosis in RAW264.7 using Annexin-V binding immunofluorescent microscopy, but not in any other particulates. In vivo, cytotoxicity of nanosized was higher than micro-sized particulates. As higher the concentration of particulates, the more pulmonary injury and neutrophilic infiltration were observed in nano-sized than micro-sized particulates, respectively. Particularly, 5.0 mg/kg of mTiO2 never shows any increase of neutrophile even with high cellularity of total cells and macrophages. From these results, we suggested that particulate-induced respiratory toxicity be influenced by component, size, and dose of particulates including the characteristic nature of the target cells in vitro and in vivo.