, Volume 7, Issue 4-5, pp 499-506

Perchlorate Reduction by Nanoscale Iron Particles

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Abstract

We report herein the near complete reduction of perchlorate (ClO \(_{4}^{-}\) ) to chloride by nanoscale iron particles. The nanoparticles also reduce chlorate (ClO \(_{3}^-\) ), chlorite (ClO \(_{2}^-\) ) and hypochlorite (ClO \(^{-}\) ) to chloride. No reaction was observed with microscale iron powder under identical conditions. The temperature sensitivity of the perchlorate-nanoparticle reaction is evidenced by progressively increasing rate constant values of 0.013, 0.10, 0.64 and 1.52 mg perchlorate per g nanoparticles per hour (mg-g-1-hr-1), respectively, at temperatures of 25, 40, 60 and 75°C. The activation energy of perchlorate-iron reaction was calculated to be 79.02 ± 7.75 kJ/mole. Despite favorable thermodynamics, the relatively large activation energy for this reaction suggests that perchlorate reduction is limited by the slow kinetics. The nanoscale iron particles may represent a potential treatment method for perchlorate-contaminated water.