Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 499–506

Perchlorate Reduction by Nanoscale Iron Particles


DOI: 10.1007/s11051-005-4412-x

Cite this article as:
Cao, J., Elliott, D. & Zhang, Wx. J Nanopart Res (2005) 7: 499. doi:10.1007/s11051-005-4412-x


We report herein the near complete reduction of perchlorate (ClO \(_{4}^{-}\)) to chloride by nanoscale iron particles. The nanoparticles also reduce chlorate (ClO \(_{3}^-\)), chlorite (ClO \(_{2}^-\)) and hypochlorite (ClO \(^{-}\)) to chloride. No reaction was observed with microscale iron powder under identical conditions. The temperature sensitivity of the perchlorate-nanoparticle reaction is evidenced by progressively increasing rate constant values of 0.013, 0.10, 0.64 and 1.52 mg perchlorate per g nanoparticles per hour (mg-g-1-hr-1), respectively, at temperatures of 25, 40, 60 and 75°C. The activation energy of perchlorate-iron reaction was calculated to be 79.02 ± 7.75 kJ/mole. Despite favorable thermodynamics, the relatively large activation energy for this reaction suggests that perchlorate reduction is limited by the slow kinetics. The nanoscale iron particles may represent a potential treatment method for perchlorate-contaminated water.


perchloratenanoscale iron particlesreductionactivation energykineticscolloidswater quality

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringLehigh UniversityPAUSA