, Volume 7, Issue 4-5, pp 449-467

Synthesis of Nanoscale Bimetallic Particles in Polyelectrolyte Membrane Matrix for Reductive Transformation of Halogenated Organic Compounds

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Abstract

Nanosized Fe/Ni and Fe/Pd particles were synthesized in the polyacrylic acid (PAA)/polyether sulfone (PES) composite membrane matrix for reductive transformation of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs). The advantages of using membrane to immobilize nanoparticles are the reduction of particles loss, prevention of particles agglomeration, and potential application of convective flow. Cross-linked PAA/PES composite membranes containing metal ions as particles precursor were prepared by heat treatment with ethylene glycol (EG) as a cross-linking agent. Nanoscale metal particles were formed and immobilized inside the membrane matrix after reduction with sodium borohydride. Membrane morphology and structure were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particle size and distribution were characterized by SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to obtain the qualitative and quantitative element information of particles. A specimen-drift-free EDS line profile and EDS mapping system was performed in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to determine the two-dimensional element distribution of iron and nickel in the nano domain. In the dechlorination study with trichloroethylene (TCE) as a representative HOCs, rapid and complete destruction of TCE was achieved by using nanosized bimetallic Fe/Ni or Fe/Pd in PAA/PES composite membranes. Typically more than 95% of 10 mg/l TCE was reduced within 1 h. Ethane was found in the headspace as the main product.