, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 467484
First online:
A review of particle swarm optimization. Part I: background and development
 Alec BanksAffiliated withTornado InService Software Maintenance Team, Royal Air Force Email author
 , Jonathan VincentAffiliated withSoftware Systems Modelling Group, School of Design, Engineering and Computing, Bournemouth University
 , Chukwudi AnyakohaAffiliated withSoftware Systems Modelling Group, School of Design, Engineering and Computing, Bournemouth University
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Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), in its present form, has been in existence for roughly a decade, with formative research in related domains (such as social modelling, computer graphics, simulation and animation of natural swarms or flocks) for some years before that; a relatively short time compared with some of the other natural computing paradigms such as artificial neural networks and evolutionary computation. However, in that short period, PSO has gained widespread appeal amongst researchers and has been shown to offer good performance in a variety of application domains, with potential for hybridisation and specialisation, and demonstration of some interesting emergent behaviour. This paper aims to offer a compendious and timely review of the field and the challenges and opportunities offered by this welcome addition to the optimization toolbox. Part I discusses the location of PSO within the broader domain of natural computing, considers the development of the algorithm, and refinements introduced to prevent swarm stagnation and tackle dynamic environments. Part II considers current research in hybridisation, combinatorial problems, multicriteria and constrained optimization, and a range of indicative application areas.
Keywords
Particle swarm optimization Natural computing Title
 A review of particle swarm optimization. Part I: background and development
 Journal

Natural Computing
Volume 6, Issue 4 , pp 467484
 Cover Date
 200712
 DOI
 10.1007/s1104700790495
 Print ISSN
 15677818
 Online ISSN
 15729796
 Publisher
 Springer Netherlands
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Keywords

 Particle swarm optimization
 Natural computing
 Authors

 Alec Banks ^{(1)}
 Jonathan Vincent ^{(2)}
 Chukwudi Anyakoha ^{(2)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Tornado InService Software Maintenance Team, Royal Air Force, Boscombe Down, Wiltshire, UK
 2. Software Systems Modelling Group, School of Design, Engineering and Computing, Bournemouth University, Poole, Dorset, UK