, Volume 175, Issue 5, pp 523–535

The Lichen Connections of Black Fungi


    • Institute of Plant SciencesKarl-Franzens-University Graz
    • Department of Life ScienceUniversity of Trieste
  • Cecile Gueidan
    • Department of Life ScienceThe Natural History Museum
  • Kerry Knudsen
    • The Herbarium, Department of Botany and Plant SciencesUniversity of California
  • Gary Perlmutter
    • UNC Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical GardenUniversity of North Carolina
  • Martin Grube
    • Institute of Plant SciencesKarl-Franzens-University Graz

DOI: 10.1007/s11046-012-9598-8

Cite this article as:
Muggia, L., Gueidan, C., Knudsen, K. et al. Mycopathologia (2013) 175: 523. doi:10.1007/s11046-012-9598-8


Many black meristematic fungi persist on rock surfaces—hostile and exposed habitats where high doses of radiation and periods of desiccation alternate with rain and temperature extremes. To cope with these extremes, rock-inhabiting black fungi show phenotypic plasticity and produce melanin as cell wall pigments. The rather slow growth rate seems to be an additional prerequisite to oligotrophic conditions. At least some of these fungi can undergo facultative, lichen-like associations with photoautotrophs. Certain genera presenting different lifestyles are phylogenetic related among the superclass Dothideomyceta. In this paper, we focus on the genus Lichenothelia, which includes border-line lichens, that is, associations of melanised fungi with algae without forming proper lichen thalli. We provide a first phylogenetic hypothesis to show that Lichenothelia belongs to the superclass Dothideomyceta. Further, culture experiments revealed the presence of co-occurring fungi in Lichenothelia thalli. These fungi are related to plant pathogenic fungi (Mycosphaerellaceae) and to other rock-inhabiting lineages (Teratosphaeriaceae). The Lichenothelia thallus-forming fungi represent therefore consortia of different black fungal strains. Our results suggest a common link between rock-inhabiting meristematic and lichen-forming lifestyles of ascomycetous fungi.


AlgaeBorderline lichensDothideomycetaLichenicolousLichenotheliaSymbiosis

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012