Coccidioidomycosis, the fungal infection caused by dimorphic Coccidioides sp., is typically diagnosed by histopathologic identification of spherules in affected secretions and tissues or by culture. These tests are reliable but time-intensive, delaying diagnosis and treatment. To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test developed to detect Coccidioides sp. in clinical specimens, we conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients (N = 145) who underwent Coccidioides PCR at our institution between April 27, 2007, and May 6, 2008, abstracting clinical, microbiologic, serologic, radiographic, treatment, and follow-up data. One hundred fifty-eight PCR tests (153 respiratory; 5 cerebrospinal fluid) produced 5 positive and 153 negative findings. Five of nine patients (56%) with confirmed or highly probable pulmonary coccidioidomycosis had a positive PCR on respiratory specimens, and four of nine (44%) had a positive culture. Among two patients with coccidioidal meningitis, none had a positive PCR, whereas Coccidioides sp. in fungal culture grew for one of two. Among six asymptomatic patients with probable coccidioidomycosis, none had a positive culture or PCR. Compared with culture of respiratory specimens, PCR demonstrated a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 75, 99, 60, and 99%, respectively. Coccidioides PCR appears accurate in identifying negative results, and its sensitivity is similar to that of fungal culture.