Occurrence of Yeasts in Cloacae of Migratory Birds
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Several species of yeast have been reported as pathogens in humans based on increases in immunodeficiency syndromes and as a result of immunosuppressant chemotherapy in cancer treatment. Domestic and wild birds are known to act as carriers of human pathogenic fungi. To gain additional information on the yeasts present in the cloacae of some species of migratory birds, 421 wild birds (24.39% out of 1726 birds caught in Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria) were sampled with the permission of the local judicial authority. The state of conservation of the birds (i.e. post-mortem alterations, colour of the mucosae etc.), along with their age and sex were determined. Samples were collected directly from the cloacae and cultured, and colonies were identified in each positive sample. Yeasts were isolated from 15.7% of the animals sampled, with the highest percentage found in coots (Fulica atra −58.8%) and the lowest in quails (Coturnix coturnix −1.7%). A total of 131 isolates belonging to 15 species of yeast were identified. Rhodotorula rubra was the yeast with the highest number of isolates (28.2%), followed by Cryptococcus albidus (18.4%), Candida albicans (9.2%), Trichosporon cutaneum (8.4%), Candida guilliermondii (6.1%), Candida tropicalis (6.1%) and other species. The present study represents the first survey on the occurrence of yeasts in the cloacae of migratory birds. The prevalence and species of yeasts isolated is discussed on the basis of the ecology, diet, and habitat of the birds.
- Ainsworth GC. History of Medical and Veterinary Mycology. Cambridge University Press, 1986.
- Hazen, KC (1995) New and emerging yeast pathogens. Clin Microbiol Rev 8: pp. 462-478
- de Hoog GS, Guarro J. Atlas of clinical fungi. In: de Hoog GS, Guarro J, eds. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures Baarn and Delft, 2nd edn. The Netherlands, 1999.
- Barnett JA, Payne RW, Yarrow D. Yeasts: Characteristics and Identification, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
- Emmons, CV (1951) Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from soil. J Bacteriol 62: pp. 685-689
- Emmons, CV (1955) Saprophytic sources of Cryptococcus neoformans associated with the pigeon. Am J Hygiene 62: pp. 277-232
- Emmons, CV (1960) Prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon habitat. Public Health Rep 75: pp. 362-364
- Emmons, CV (1962) Natural occurrence of opportunistic fungi. Lab Invest 11: pp. 1026-1032
- Swinne-Desgain, D (1975) Cryptococcus neoformans of saprophytic origin. Sabouraudia 13: pp. 303-308
- Ramirez, R, Robertstad, GW, Hutchison, LR, Chavez, J (1976) Mycotic flora in the lower digestive tract of feral pigeons (Columba livia) in El Paso, Texas area. J Wildlife Dis 12: pp. 83-85
- Ruiz, A, Fromtling, RA, Bulmer, GS (1981) Distribution of C. neoformans in natural site. Infect Immun 31: pp. 560-563
- Mattsson, R, Haeming, PD, Olsen, B (1999) Feral pigeons as carriers of Cryptococcus laurentii, Cryptococcus uniguttulatus, and Debaryomyces Hansenii. Med Mycol 37: pp. 367-369 CrossRef
- Bauwens, L, Swinne, D, Vroey, C, Meurichy, W (1986) Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans in the aviaries of the Antwerp Zoological Gardens. Mykosen 29: pp. 291-294
- Nosanchuk, JD, Shoham, S, Fries, BC, Shapiro, DS, Levitz, SM, Casadevall, A (2000) Evidence of zoonotic transmission of Cryptococcus neoformans from a pet cockatoo to an immunocompromised patient. Ann Intern Med 132: pp. 205-208
- Criseo, GM, Bolignano, MS, Leo, F, Staib, F (1995) Evidence of canary droppings as an important reservoir of Cryptococcus neoformans. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie 282: pp. 244-254
- Caicedo, LD, Alvarez, MI, Delgado, M, Cardenas, A (1999) Cryptococcus neoformans in bird excreta in the city zoo of Cali, Colombia. Mycopathologia 147: pp. 121-124 CrossRef
- Guiguen, C, Boisseau-Lebrueil, MT, Couprie, B (1986) Flore fongique du tube digestif isolée de pigeons de ville à Bordeaux. Bull Soc Franc Mycol Méd 15: pp. 151-154
- Thrusfield, M (1995) Veterinary Epidemiology. Blackwell Science Ltd, London, UK
- Staib, F (1963) New concepts in the occurrence and identification of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata 19: pp. 143-145
- Mancianti, F, Nardoni, S, Ceccherelli, R (2001) Occurrence of yeasts in psittacines droppings from captive birds in Italy. Mycopathologia 153: pp. 121-124
- Gallo, MG, Cabeli, P, Vidotto, V (1989) Sulla presenza di lieviti patogeni nelle feci di colombo terraiolo nella città di Torino. Parassitologia 31: pp. 207-212
- Refai, M, Taha, M, Selim, SA, Elshabourii, F, Yusseff, HH (1983) Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and other yeasts from pigeon droppings in Egypt. Sabouraudia 21: pp. 163-165
- Vidotto, V, Gallo, MG (1985) Indagine sulla presenza di lieviti patogeni nelle feci di colombo terraiolo provenienti da contesti rurali. Parassitologia 27: pp. 312-320
- Anaissie, E, Bodey, GP, Kantarjian, H, Ro, J, Vartivarian, SE, Hopfer, R, Hoy, J, Rolston, K (1989) New spectrum of fungal infection in patients with cancer. Rev Infect Dis 11: pp. 369-378
- Kiehn, TE, Gorey, E, Brown, AE, Edwards, FF, Armstrong, D (1992) Sepsis due to Rhodotorula related to use of indwelling central venous catheters. Clin Infect Dis 14: pp. 841-846
- Johnson, LB, Bradley, SF, Kauffman, CA (1998) Fungemia due to Cryptococcus laurentii and a review of non-neoformans cryptococcaemia. Mycoses 41: pp. 277-280
- Kamalam, A, Yesudian, P, Thambiah, AS (1977) Cutaneous infections by Cryptococcus larentii. Brit J Dermatol 97: pp. 221-223
- Anaissie, E, Bodey, GP (1989) Nosocomial fungal infections. Old problems and new challenges. Infect Dis Clin N Am 3: pp. 867-882
- Samonis, G, Bafaloukos, D (1992) Fungal infections in cancer patients: an escalating problem. In vivo 6: pp. 183-194
- Nishikawa, MM, Lazera, MS, Barbosa, GG, Trilles, L, Balassiano, BR, Macedo, RC, Bezerra, CC, Perez, MA, Cardarelli, P, Wanke, B (2003) Serotyping of 467 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from clinical and environmental sources in Brazil: analysis of host and regional patterns. J Clin Microbiol 41: pp. 73-77 CrossRef
- Occurrence of Yeasts in Cloacae of Migratory Birds
Volume 161, Issue 4 , pp 229-234
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Candida spp.
- Cryptococcus spp.
- Rhodotorula spp.
- Trichosporon spp.
- wild bird
- Industry Sectors