, Volume 71, Issue 3, pp 1283-1309
Date: 13 Nov 2012

Physically-based modeling, simulation and rendering of fire for computer animation

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We give an up-to-date survey on techniques and methods for fire simulation in computer graphics. Physically-based method prevails over traditional non-physical methods for realistic visual effect. In this paper, we explore visual simulation of fire-related phenomena in terms of physically modeling, numerical simulation and visual rendering. Firstly, we introduce a physical and chemical coupled mathematical model to explain fire behavior and motion. Several assumptions and constrains are put forward to simplify their implementations in computer graphics. We then give an overview of present methods to solve the most complicated processes in numerical simulation: velocity advection and pressure projection. In addition, comparisons of these methods are also presented respectively. Since fire is a participating medium as well as a visual radiator, we discuss techniques and problems of these issues as well. We conclude by addressing several open challenges and possible future research directions in fire simulation.