Partially compressed-encrypted domain robust JPEG image watermarking

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Abstract

Digital media is often handled in a compressed and encrypted form in Digital Asset Management Systems. And watermarking of the compressed encrypted media items in the compressed-encrypted domain itself is required sometimes for copyright violation detection or other purposes. In this paper, we propose a robust image watermarking technique for partially compressed-encrypted JPEG images. However, arbitrary embedding of a watermark in a partially compressed encrypted image can cause drastic degradation of the quality as the underlying change may result in random decrypted values. In addition, due to the encryption the compression efficiency may become very low. Thus the challenge is to design a watermarking technique that provides good watermarked image quality and at the same time gives good compression efficiency. While the proposed technique embeds watermark in the partially compressed-encrypted domain, the extraction of watermark can be done in the encrypted or decrypted domains. The experiments show that the watermarked image quality is good and the reduction in compression efficiency is low. The proposed watermarking technique is robust to common signal processing attacks. The watermark detection performance of the proposed scheme is better than the existing encrypted domain watermarking techniques.