Mobile Networks and Applications

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 283–297

Randomized 3-D Routing in Fully- and Partially-Covered Sensor Networks


DOI: 10.1007/s11036-009-0183-4

Cite this article as:
El Salti, T. & Nasser, N. Mobile Netw Appl (2010) 15: 283. doi:10.1007/s11036-009-0183-4


In recent years, sensor network technology has been proposed to improve the detection level of natural disasters (e.g. volcanoes, tornadoes, tsunamis). However, this technology has several design issues that need to be improved. We, therefore in this paper, focus on two main design issues: coverage and routing. For coverage issue, we introduce a new approach for obtaining a fully covered network in \(\boldsymbol{3}\textbf{-}{\boldsymbol D}\) environment such that every single point in a region is fully covered by at least one sensor node. This approach is referred to as the Chipset Coverage Model and Algorithm. This would be accomplished by using a small number of sensor nodes in order to save up some energy. Based on our coverage approach, we address the routing issue by proposing a new position-based routing protocol referred to as the \(\boldsymbol{3}\textbf{-}{\boldsymbol D}\) Randomized Sensing Spheres routing protocol (\(\boldsymbol{3}\textbf{-}{\boldsymbol D}\)\(\boldsymbol{RSS}\)). We show that the \(\boldsymbol{3}\textbf{-}{\boldsymbol D}\)\(\boldsymbol{RSS}\) protocol guarantees packet delivery. Moreover, from our simulation, we demonstrate that the \(\boldsymbol{3}\textbf{-}{\boldsymbol D}\)\(\boldsymbol{RSS}\) has a behaviour close to the behaviour of an existing \(\boldsymbol{3\textbf{-}D}\) progress-based protocol in terms of hop dilation and routing delay, where the delay is defined as Quality of Service (QoS) metric. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the \(\boldsymbol{3}\textbf{-}{\boldsymbol D}\)\(\boldsymbol{RSS}\) protocol outperforms the existing progress-based protocol in terms of Euclidean and power dilations. Thus, the new protocol reduces the energy consumption of the nodes and, therefore, prolongs the lifetime of the sensing nodes. For partially covered networks, we propose a dynamic position-based routing protocol referred to as the \(\boldsymbol{3}\textbf{-}{\boldsymbol D}\) Randomized Sensing Spheres version 1 routing protocol (\(\boldsymbol{3}\textbf{-}{\boldsymbol D}\)\(\boldsymbol{RSSv1}\)). This protocol increases the chances of delivering packets by moving linearly towards the destinations. We demonstrate that the \(\boldsymbol{3}\textbf{-}{\boldsymbol D}\)\(\boldsymbol{RSSv1}\) has a remarkable delivery rate compared to an existing progress-based routing protocol.


sensing-covered regions3-D routingpartially-covered networks

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computing and Information ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada