The experiment were performed to investigate the poisoning-related proteins and main pathological changes after mouse suffered from injection of botulinum toxin serotype E. Dose of 0.75 LD50 botulinum toxin serotype E per mice were administrated by intraperitoneal injection. Survival mouse were picked as experimental group. The blood were collected from orbital blood and serum sample was separated by centrifugation. The heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney were fixed in 10 % neutral buffered formalin and then developed paraffin sections. Serum protein components were analyzed by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis coupled with 2-DE SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by PDQUest8.0 software and subjected to ion trap mass spectrometry equipped with a high performance liquid chromatography system. The observation of pathological section showed that heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney exhibited pathological changes in different degree, especially in heart, liver and lung tissues. Heart muscle tissue display serious inflammatory response, heart muscle fiber compulsively expanded and filled with erythrocyte and inflammatory exudates, some heart muscle fiber ruptured, even necrosis; hepatic cell in edge of liver occur apoptosis and some hepatic cell have disintegrated, and even died; pulmonary alveoli broken and partial vein filled with blood. Serum proteins component present a significant changes between control serum and botulism in 24 h by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and 2-DE-SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Twenty differentially expressed protein spots were observed in 2-DE profiles, in which 14 protein spots were undetectable in serum proteome under botulism, 3 protein spots exclusively expressed in state of botulism, 3 protein spots were low-expressed in serum proteome under botulism. Fourteen proteins have been identified among 20 spots elected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels. Crystal proteins family exclusively expressed in control group serum. Haptoglobin were low-expressed under botulism in serum protein components, however, serum amyloid A only expressed in serum sample under botulism in 24 h, which were verified by Western-blot. Identified proteins involved in energy metabolism, cellular stress response, transcription, body defense and cell proliferation. These findings represent the first report of BoNT-induced changes in serum proteome and histopathology, and reinforce the utility of applying proteomic tools to the study of system-wide biological processes in normal and botulism.