Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 2541–2548

Role of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor polymorphism in myocardial infarction

  • Waqas Ahmed
  • Meera Malik
  • Imran Saeed
  • Amina Ali Khan
  • Ahmed Sadeque
  • Umar Kaleem
  • Nuzhat Ahmed
  • Muhammad Ajmal
  • Maleeha Azam
  • Raheel Qamar
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11033-010-0392-8

Cite this article as:
Ahmed, W., Malik, M., Saeed, I. et al. Mol Biol Rep (2011) 38: 2541. doi:10.1007/s11033-010-0392-8

Abstract

A case–control association study on 229 Myocardial Infarction (MI) patients and 217 healthy controls was carried out to determine the role of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) (Alu-repeat insertion (I)/deletion (D)) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) (4G/5G insertion/deletion) polymorphisms with MI in the Pakistani population. In MI patients the genotype distribution of the PAI-1 gene was not found to be different when compared with the unaffected controls (P > 0.05, χ2 = 1.03). The risk allele 4G was also not associated with MI (P > 0.05, χ2 = 0.46, odds ratio (OR) = 1.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84–1.43), P > 0.05). Similarly, the genotype frequencies of t-PA I/I, I/D and D/D were not different from the unaffected controls (P > 0.05, χ2 = 1.60), and the risk allele “I” was not found to be associated with MI (P > 0.05, χ2 = 1.35, OR = 0.86 (95% CI = 0.66–1.11), P > 0.05). However, when the data were distributed along the lines of gender a significant association of the 4G/4G PAI-1 genotype was observed with only the female MI patients (P < 0.05, z-test = 2.21). When the combined genotypes of both the polymorphisms were analyzed, a significant association of MI was observed with the homozygous DD/4G4G genotype (P < 0.01, z-test = 2.61), which was specifically because of the female samples (P = 0.01, z-test = 2.53). In addition smoking (P < 0.001, χ2 = 13.52, OR = 3.45 (95% CI = 1.77–6.94)), diabetes (P < 0.001, χ2 = 22.45, OR = 8.89 (95% CI = 2.96–29.95)), hypertension (OR = 7.76 (95% CI = 2.88–22.68), P < 0.001) family history (P < 0.001, χ2 = 13.72, OR = 3.7 (95% CI = 1.71–8.18)) and lower HDL levels (P < 0.05) were found to be significantly associated with the disease. In conclusion the PAI-1 gene polymorphism was found to have a gender specific role in the female MI patients.

Keywords

Myocardial infarction Tissue-plasminogen activator Plasminogen activator inhibitor Coronary artery disease 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waqas Ahmed
    • 1
  • Meera Malik
    • 2
  • Imran Saeed
    • 3
  • Amina Ali Khan
    • 2
  • Ahmed Sadeque
    • 1
  • Umar Kaleem
    • 3
  • Nuzhat Ahmed
    • 4
  • Muhammad Ajmal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maleeha Azam
    • 1
  • Raheel Qamar
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Shifa College of MedicineIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Benazir Bhutto HospitalRawalpindiPakistan
  4. 4.Centre for Molecular GeneticsUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan