Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 401–419

Types of boredom: An experience sampling approach


    • Department of Empirical Educational ResearchUniversity of Konstanz and Thurgau University of Teacher Education
  • Anne C. Frenzel
    • Department of PsychologyUniversity of Munich
  • Nathan C. Hall
    • Department of Educational and Counselling PsychologyMcGill University
  • Ulrike E. Nett
    • Institute of Psychology and EducationUniversity of Ulm
  • Reinhard Pekrun
    • Department of PsychologyUniversity of Munich
  • Anastasiya A. Lipnevich
    • Division of EducationQueens College, City University of New York
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11031-013-9385-y

Cite this article as:
Goetz, T., Frenzel, A.C., Hall, N.C. et al. Motiv Emot (2014) 38: 401. doi:10.1007/s11031-013-9385-y


The present study investigated different types of boredom as proposed in a four-categorical conceptual model by Goetz and Frenzel (2006; doi:10.1026/0049-8637.38.4.149). In this model, four types of boredom are differentiated based on degrees of valence and arousal: indifferent, calibrating, searching, and reactant boredom. In two studies (Study 1: university students, N = 63, mean age 24.08 years, 66 % female; Study 2: high school students, grade 11, N = 80, mean age 17.05 years, 58 % female), real-time data were obtained via the experience-sampling method (personal digital assistants, randomized signals). Boredom experiences (N = 1,103/1,432 in Studies 1/2) were analyzed with respect to the dimensions of valence and arousal using multilevel latent profile analyses. Supporting the internal validity of the proposed boredom types, our results are in line with the assumed four types of boredom but suggest an additional, fifth type, referred to as “apathetic boredom.” The present findings further support the external validity of the five boredom types in showing differential relations between the boredom types and other affective states as well as frequency of situational occurrence (achievement contexts vs. non-achievement contexts). Methodological implications as well as directions for future research are discussed.


BoredomEmotionsAchievementExperience sampling

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013