Motivated message processing: How motivational activation influences resource allocation, encoding, and storage of TV messages
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
This paper investigates differences in overtime processing of television messages with three types of emotional trajectories—those which begin neutral and become negative, begin neutral and become positive and begin neutral and become equally positive and negative. The limited capacity model of motivated mediated message processing is used to predict how the type of emotional content influences real-time activation of the appetitive and aversive motivational systems which then alter concurrent and subsequent message processing. Results show that during the first time period, when motivational activation is low, more resources are allocated to coactive and positive compared to negative messages supporting the positivity offset hypothesis. In the middle time period, when activation is moderate, more resources are allocated to negative than to positive messages, supporting the negativity bias hypothesis. Further, the different patterns of motivational activation do result in different patterns of messages processing. During positive messages, encoding increases and storage decreases over time. During negative messages, encoding decreases and storage increases overtime. During coactive messages initial encoding and storage are high though both decrease slightly over time.
- Basil, M. (1994). Secondary reaction-time measures. In A. Lang (Ed.), Measuring psychological responses to media messages (pp. 85–98). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Biocca, F., David, P., & West, M. (1994). Continuous response measurement (CRM): A computerized tool for research on the cognitive processing of communication messages. In A. Lang (Ed.), Measuring psychological response to media (pp. 15–64). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Bolls, P. D., Lang, A., & Potter, R. F. (2001). The effects of message valence and listener arousal on attention, memory, and facial muscular responses to radio advertisements. Communication Research, 28, 627. doi:10.1177/009365001028005003. CrossRef
- Bradley, S. D. (2007). Examining the eyeblink startle reflex as a measure of emotion and motivation to television messages. Communication Methods & Measures, 1, 7–30. doi:10.1080/19312450709336658. CrossRef
- Bradley, M. M., Codispoti, M., Cuthbert, B. N., & Lang, P. J. (2001). Emotion and motivation I: Defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing. Emotion, 1, 276–298. doi:10.1037//1528-35188.8.131.526. CrossRef
- Cacioppo, J. T., & Gardner, W. L. (1999). Emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 191–214. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.50.1.191. CrossRef
- Jarvis, B. G. (2006). MediaLab research software (Version 2006). New York, NY: Empirisoft.
- Lang, A. (1990). Involuntary attention and physiological arousal evoked by structural features and emotional content in TV commercials. Communication Research, 17(3), 275–299. doi:10.1177/009365090017003001.
- Lang, A. (2000). The limited capacity model of mediated message processing. Journal of Communication, 50, 46–70. doi:10.1093/joc/50.1.46. CrossRef
- Lang, A. (2006a). Motivated cognition (LC4MP): The influence of appetitive and aversive activation on the processing of video games. In P. Messarsis & L. Humphries (Eds.), Digital media: Transformation in human communication. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
- Lang, A. (2006b). Using the limited capacity model of motivated mediated message processing to design effective cancer communication messages. Journal of Communication, 56, S57–S80. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00283.x. CrossRef
- Lang, A. (2009). The limited capacity model of motivated mediated message processing. In R. Nabi & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), The sage handbook of mass media effects (pp. 193–204). Beverly Hills: SAGE Publications.
- Lang, A., & Basil, M. (1998). What do secondary task reaction times measure anyway? In M. Roloff (Ed.), Communication yearbook (Vol. 21, pp. 443–470). Beverly Hills: Sage.
- Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (1997). Motivated attention: Affect, activation, and action. Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes (pp. 97–135).
- Lang, A., Bradley, S. D., Park, B., Shin, M., & Chung, Y. (2006). Parsing the resource pie: Using STRTs to measure attention to mediated messages. Media Psychology, 8, 369–394. doi:10.1207/s1532785xmep0804_3. CrossRef
- Lang, A., Bradley, S. D., Sparks, J. V., Jr, & Lee, S. (2007a). The motivation activation measure (MAM): How well does it predict individual differences in physiological indicators of appetitive and aversive activation? Communication Methods & Measures, 1, 113–136. CrossRef
- Lang, A., Bradley, S. D., Sparks, J. V., & Lee, S. (2007b). Measuring individual differences in motivation activation: Predicting physiological and behavioral indicators of appetitive and aversive activation. Communication Methods and Measures, 1, 113–136. doi:10.1080/19312450701399370. CrossRef
- Lang, P. J., Greenwald, M. K., Bradley, M. M., & Hamm, A. O. (1993). Looking at pictures: Affective, facial, visceral, and behavioral reactions. Psychophysiology, 30, 261–273. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1993.tb03352.x. CrossRef
- Lang, A., Park, B. H., Sanders, A., Wilson, B., & Wang, Z. (2007c). Cognition and emotion in TV message processing: How valence, arousing content, structural complexity, and information density affect the availability of cognitive resources. Media Psychology, 10, 317–338. doi:10.1080/15213260701532880. CrossRef
- Lang, A., Shin, M., & Lee, S. (2005). Sensation seeking, motivation, and substance use: A dual system approach. Media Psychology, 7, 1–29. doi:10.1207/S1532785XMEP0701_1. CrossRef
- Lang, A., & Yegiyan, N. S. (2009). Motivated message processing: How media elicit motivation which influences how media are processed. In J. McCroskey, K. Floyd, & M. Beatty (Eds.), Biological dimensions of communication (pp. 135–159). Cresskill: Hampton Press.
- Lang, A., Yegiyan, N. S., & Bradley, S. D. (2006b). Effects of motivational activation on processing of health messages. Psychophysiology, 43(S1), 56.
- Lang, A., Yegiyan, N., & Bradley, S. D. (2012). Motivated mediated message processing and individual differences in motivational activation. Manuscript submitted for publication.
- Larsen, J. T., McGraw, A. P., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2001). Can people feel happy and sad at the same time? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 684–696. doi:10.1037//0022-35184.108.40.2064. CrossRef
- Ohman, A. (1979). The orientations response, attention, and learning: An information processing perspective. In H. D. Kimmel, E. H. V. Olst, & J. F. Orlebeke (Eds.), The orienting reflex in humans (pp. 443–472). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Ohman, A. (1997). As fast as the blink of an eye: Evolutionary preparedness for preattentive processing of threat. In P. J. Lang, R. F. Simons, & M. Balaban (Eds.), Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes (pp. 165–184). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Reeves, B., & Geiger, S. (1994). Designing experiments that assess psychological responses to media messages. In A. Lang (Ed.), Measuring psychological responses to media messages (pp. 165–180). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Shin, M. (2006). Emotional message processing: A dual system approach. Unpublished Dissertation. Indiana University Bloomington.
- Sparks, J. V., & Lang, A. (2010). An initial examination of the post-auricular reflex as a physiological indicator of appetitive activation during television viewing. Communication Methods & Measures, 4(4), 311–330. doi:10.1080/19312458.2010.527872. CrossRef
- Wang, Z., & Lang, A. (2012). Reconceptualizing excitation transfer as motivational activation changes and a test of the television program context effects. Media Psychology, 15, 68–92. doi:10(1080/15213269),2011,649604. CrossRef
- Wang, Z., Lang, A., & Busemeyer, J. R. (2011). Motivational processing and choice behavior during television viewing: An integrative dynamic approach. Journal of Communication, 61, 72–94. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01527.x. CrossRef
- Wang, Z., Morey, A. C., & Srivastava, J. (2012). Motivated selective attention during political ad processing: The dynamic interplay between emotional ad content and candidate evaluation. Communication Research. doi: 10.1177/0093650212441793 [online first].
- Wang, Z., Tchernev, J., Solloway, T., & Barker, B. (in press). Dynamic motivational processing of anti-drug messages: Coactivation begets attention. Human Communication Research.
- Motivated message processing: How motivational activation influences resource allocation, encoding, and storage of TV messages
Motivation and Emotion
Volume 37, Issue 3 , pp 508-517
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Institute for Communication Research, Department of Telecommunications, College of Arts and Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
- 2. Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
- 3. School of Communication, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
- 4. Nicholson School of Communication, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA