Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 389–405

The treatment of hepatic encephalopathy


    • Centre for Hepatology, Division of MedicineRoyal Free Campus, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London
  • A. Blei
    • Northwestern University
  • K. Grüngreiff
    • Hepatology Outpatient Practice
  • R. Jalan
    • Institute of Hepatology, Division of MedicineBloomsburg Campus, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London
  • G. Kircheis
    • Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and InfectiologyHeinrich-Heine-University
  • G. Marchesini
    • Unit of Clinical DieteticsAlma Mater Studiorum University
  • O. Riggio
    • Department of Clinical Medicine, Division of GastroenterologyUniversity of Rome La Sapienza
  • Karin Weissenborn
    • Department of NeurologyMedical School Hannover

DOI: 10.1007/s11011-007-9060-7

Cite this article as:
Morgan, M.Y., Blei, A., Grüngreiff, K. et al. Metab Brain Dis (2007) 22: 389. doi:10.1007/s11011-007-9060-7


Current recommendations for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy are based, to a large extent, on open or uncontrolled trials, undertaken in very small numbers of patients. In consequence, there is ongoing discussion as to whether the classical approach to the treatment of this condition, which aims at reducing ammonia production and absorption using either non-absorbable disaccharides and/or antibiotics, should be revisited, modified or even abandoned. Pros and cons of present therapeutic strategies and possible future developments were discussed at the fourth International Hannover Conference on Hepatic Encephalopathy held in Dresden in June 2006. The content of this discussion is summarized.


Branched-chain amino acidsBromocriptineHepatic cirrhosisHepatic encephalopathyNon-absorbable antibioticsNon-absorbable disaccharidesOrnithine aspartateSodium benzoateTreatmentZinc

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007