APOE −491 T allele may reduce the risk of atherosclerotic lesions among middle-aged women
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- Bañares, V.G., Bardach, A., Peterson, G. et al. Mol Cell Biochem (2012) 362: 123. doi:10.1007/s11010-011-1134-5
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Genetic variability of the APOE gene confers susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD). Beyond variability on the coding region, polymorphisms in the regulatory region of the APOE gene have been associated with variation on plasma cholesterol levels. It has also been demonstrated a complex and multifactorial association between, APOE gene polymorphisms, gender, plasma lipids levels and risk of CAD. In the present case–control study, we examined polymorphisms −427 T/C and −491 A/T in the promoter region of APOE in relation to lipid profile and the coronary atherosclerosis, in a sample of Argentinean adults with (cases) and without (controls) atherosclerotic injuries regarding gender and age. In females below 60 years APOE −491 T allele was less prevalent in cases than in controls (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.04–0.76). Among females cases the T allele was more frequent with increasing age (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.27–0.90). Female up to 45 years who were carriers of the T allele showed lower levels of total (P = 0.01) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.02) compared with non-carriers. Levels of total and LDL cholesterol increased with the age only in female carriers (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01). No differences were observed for HDL and TG levels. Allele C of polymorphism APOE −427 was associated with higher levels of triglycerides (P < 0.01). We conclude that, in middle-aged women, APOE −491 T allele contributes keeping lower levels of LDL cholesterol in the population studied, and would have a putative protective effect for the development of CAD.