, Volume 268, Issue 1-2, pp 111-120

Combined treatment of sodium orthovanadate and Momordica charantia fruit extract prevents alterations in lipid profile and lipogenic enzymes in alloxan diabetic rats

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Abstract

Momordica charantia Linn., commonly called bitter gourd, is a medicinal plant used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes mellitus. Sodium orthovanadate (SOV) is also well-known insulin mimetic and an antidiabetic compound. Our laboratory has been using reduced doses of SOV along with administration of herbal extracts to alloxan diabetic rats and has established this combination as a good antihyperglycemic agent. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of treatment of Momordica fruit extract (MFE) and sodium orthovanadate, separately and in combination, on serum and tissue lipid profile and on the activities of lipogenic enzymes in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The results show that there was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in serum total lipids, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels after 21 days of alloxan diabetes. In the liver and kidney of diabetic rats the levels of total lipids and triglycerides also increased significantly (p < 0.01) while levels of total cholesterol decreased significantly (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). The lipogenic enzymes showed decreased activity in the diabetic liver, while in kidney they showed an increased activity. When compared with the controls these changes were significant. The treatment of alloxan diabetic rats with MFE and SOV prevented these alterations and maintained all parameters near control values. Most effective prevention was however observed in a combined treatment of Momordica with a reduced dose of SOV (0.2%). The results suggest that Momordica fruit extract and SOV exhibit hypolipidemic as well as hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and their effect is pronounced when administered in combination. (Mol Cell Biochem 268: 111–120, 2005)