Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 17, Issue 8, pp 1373–1381

Being Macrosomic at Birth is an Independent Predictor of Overweight in Children: Results from the IDEFICS Study

  • Sonia Sparano
  • Wolfgang Ahrens
  • Stefaan De Henauw
  • Staffan Marild
  • Denes Molnar
  • Luis A. Moreno
  • Marc Suling
  • Michael Tornaritis
  • Toomas Veidebaum
  • Alfonso Siani
  • Paola Russo
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10995-012-1136-2

Cite this article as:
Sparano, S., Ahrens, W., De Henauw, S. et al. Matern Child Health J (2013) 17: 1373. doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1136-2

Abstract

Fetal macrosomia is a risk factor for the development of obesity late in childhood. We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between maternal conditions associated with fetal macrosomia and actual overweight/obesity in the European cohort of children participating in the IDEFICS study. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure and plasma lipids and glucose were measured. Socio-demographic data, medical history and perinatal factors, familiar and gestational history, maternal and/or gestational diabetes were assessed by a questionnaire. Variables of interest were reported for 10,468 children (M/F = 5,294/5,174; age 6.0 ± 1.8 years, M ± SD). The sample was divided in four groups according to child birth weight (BW) and maternal diabetes: (1) adequate for gestational age offspring (BW between the 10th and 90th percentiles for gestational age) of mothers without diabetes (AGA-ND); (2) adequate for gestational age offspring of mothers with diabetes (AGA-D); (3) macrosomic offspring (BW > 90th percentile for gestational age) of mothers without diabetes (Macro-ND); (4) macrosomic offspring of mothers with diabetes (Macro-D). Children macrosomic at birth showed significantly higher actual values of body mass index, waist circumference, and sum of skinfold thickness. In both boys and girls, Macro-ND was an independent determinant of overweight/obesity, after the adjustment for confounders [Boys: OR = 1.7 95 % CI (1.3;2.2); Girls: OR = 1.6 95 % CI (1.3;2.0)], while Macro-D showed a significant association only in girls [OR = 2.6 95 % CI (1.1;6.4)]. Fetal macrosomia, also in the absence of maternal/gestational diabetes, is independently associated with the development of overweight/obesity during childhood. Improving the understanding of fetal programming will contribute to the early prevention of childhood overweight/obesity.

Keywords

Fetal macrosomia Childhood obesity Gestational diabetes Gestational weight gain IDEFICS 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonia Sparano
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Ahrens
    • 2
    • 3
  • Stefaan De Henauw
    • 4
  • Staffan Marild
    • 5
  • Denes Molnar
    • 6
  • Luis A. Moreno
    • 7
  • Marc Suling
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michael Tornaritis
    • 8
  • Toomas Veidebaum
    • 9
  • Alfonso Siani
    • 1
  • Paola Russo
    • 1
  1. 1.Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Institute of Food SciencesNational Research Council (CNR)AvellinoItaly
  2. 2.BIPS-Institute for Epidemiology and Prevention ResearchBremenGermany
  3. 3.Institute for StatisticsUniversity of BremenBremenGermany
  4. 4.Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  5. 5.Department of Paediatrics, Queen Silvia Children’s HospitalUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  6. 6.Department of Paediatrics, Medical FacultyUniversity of PecsPecsHungary
  7. 7.Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development Research GroupUniversity of ZaragozaZaragozaSpain
  8. 8.Research and Education Institute of Child HealthStrovolosCyprus
  9. 9.National Institute for Health DevelopmentTallinEstonia

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