Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 119–128

Characteristics of Fathers with Depressive Symptoms

  • David G. Rosenthal
  • Nicole Learned
  • Ying-Hua Liu
  • Michael Weitzman
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10995-012-0955-5

Cite this article as:
Rosenthal, D.G., Learned, N., Liu, Y. et al. Matern Child Health J (2013) 17: 119. doi:10.1007/s10995-012-0955-5

Abstract

Extensive research shows maternal depression to be associated with poorer child outcomes, and characteristics of these mothers have been described. Recent research describes associations of paternal depressive symptoms and child behavioral and emotional outcomes, but characteristics of these fathers have not been investigated. This study describes characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms in the USA. Utilizing data from 7,247 fathers and mothers living in households with children aged 5–17 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004–2006, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 was used to assess parental depressive symptoms, the Short Form-12 was used to examine paternal and maternal physical health, the Columbia Impairment Scale was used to measure child behavioral or emotional problems, and the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener was used to identify children with special health care needs. In multivariate analyses, poverty (AOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.05–2.22), maternal depressive symptoms (AOR 5.77; 95% CI 4.18–7.95), living with a child with special health care needs (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.94), poor paternal physical health (AOR 3.31; 95% CI 2.50–4.38) and paternal unemployment (AOR 6.49; 95% CI 4.12–10.22) were independently associated with increased rates of paternal depressive symptoms. These are the first data that demonstrate that poverty, paternal physical health problems, having a child with special health care needs, maternal depressive symptoms, and paternal unemployment are independently associated with paternal depressive symptoms, with paternal unemployment associated with the highest rates of such problems.

Keywords

Paternal depressive symptomsChild behaviorChild emotional problems

Abbreviations

AOR

Adjusted odds ratio

MEPS

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey

CI

Confidence interval

CIDI

Composite International Diagnostic Interview

CIS

Columbia Impairment Scale

CSHCN

Children with special health care needs

DSM-IV

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV

HPA

Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal

MCS

Mental component score

NHIS

National Health Interview Survey

PCS

Physical Component Scale

PHQ-2

Patient Health Questionnaire-2

PRIME-MD

Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders

SF-12

Short-Form 12

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David G. Rosenthal
    • 3
  • Nicole Learned
    • 3
  • Ying-Hua Liu
    • 1
  • Michael Weitzman
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.New York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA