Postpartum Depression Prevalence and Impact on Infant Health, Weight, and Sleep in Low-Income and Ethnic Minority Women and Infants
First Online: 11 May 2011 DOI:
10.1007/s10995-011-0812-y Cite this article as: Gress-Smith, J.L., Luecken, L.J., Lemery-Chalfant, K. et al. Matern Child Health J (2012) 16: 887. doi:10.1007/s10995-011-0812-y Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms at 5 and 9 months postpartum in a low-income and predominantly Hispanic sample, and evaluate the impact on infant weight gain, physical health, and sleep at 9 months. Participants included 132 low-income mother-infant pairs who participated in a larger investigation on prenatal care utilization. Mothers were interviewed in person 24–48 h after birth and by phone at 5 and 9 months postpartum. Clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms were reported in 33% of the women at 5 months postpartum, and 38% at 9 months postpartum. Higher depressive symptoms at 5 months were associated with less infant weight gain from 5 to 9 months,
p = .002, increased infant physical health concerns, p = .05, and increased infant nighttime awakenings at 9 months, p = .001. Results suggest a striking prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms through 9 months postpartum in this very low income, largely ethnic minority sample. Further, the effects of postpartum depression include significant ramifications for infant physical health. Keywords Postpartum depression Body weight Infant Sleep References
CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Maternal and infant health. September 1, 2009.
. Accessed 1 October 2009.
Gavin, N. I., Gaynes, B. N., Lohr, K. N., et al. (2005). Perinatal depression: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence.
Obstetrics and Gynecology,
CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). PRAMS and postpartum depression. May 6, 2009.
. Accessed 1 October 2009.
Ramierz, R. R., & de la Cruz, G. P. (2002).
The Hispanic population in the United States: March 2002. Current population reports (pp. 20–545). Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.
Beck, C. T., Froman, R. D., & Bernal, H. (2005). Acculturation level and postpartum depression in Hispanic mothers.
MCN; American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing,
Heilemann, M., Frutos, L., Lee, K., et al. (2004). Protective strength factors, resources, and risks in relation to depressive symptoms among childbearing women of Mexican descent.
Health Care for Women International,
Martinez-Schallmoser, L., Telleen, S., & MacMullen, N. J. (2003). The effect of social support and acculturation on postpartum depression in Mexican American women.
Journal of Transcultural Nursing,
Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (2002).
Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment
. Washington, DC: American Psychology Association.
Grace, S. L., Evindar, A., & Stewart, D. E. (2003). The effect of postpartum depression on child cognitive development and behavior: A review and critical analysis of the literature.
Archives of Women’s Mental Health,
Vik, T., Grote, V., Escribano, J., et al. (2009). Infantile colic, prolonged crying and maternal postnatal depression.
Karraker, K. H., & Young, M. (2007). Night waking in 6-month-old infants and maternal depressive symptoms.
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,
Adewuya, A. O., Ola, B. O., Aloba, O. O., et al. (2008). Impact of postnatal depression on infants’ growth in Nigeria.
Journal of Affect Disorders,
Patel, V., DeSouza, N., & Rodrigues, M. (2003). Postnatal depression and infant growth and development in low income countries: A cohort study from Goa, India.
Archives of Disease in Childhood,
Rahman, A., Iqbal, Z., Bunn, J., et al. (2004). Impact of maternal depression on infant nutritional status and illness.
Archives of General Psychiatry,
Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development.
Annual Review of Psychology,
Boyd, R. C., Zayas, L. H., & McKee, M. D. (2006). Mother-Infant interaction, life events and prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms among urban minority women in primary care.
Maternal and Child Health Journal,
Chung, E. K., McCollum, K. F., Elo, I. T., et al. (2004). Maternal depressive symptoms and infant health practices among low-income women.
Minkovitz, C. S., Strobino, D., Scharfstein, D., et al. (2005). Maternal depressive symptoms and children’s receipt of health care in the first 3 years of life.
Zajicek-Farber, M. L. (2009). Postnatal depression and infant health practices among high-risk women.
Journal of Child and Family Studies,
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population.
Applied Psychological Measurement,
Heilemann, M. V., Coffey-Love, M., & Frutos, L. (2004). Perceived reasons for depression among low income women of Mexican descent.
Archives of Psychiatric Nursing,
Vernon, S. W., & Roberts, R. E. (1981). Measuring nonspecific psychological distress and other dimensions of psychopathology: Further observations on the problem.
Archives of General Psychiatry,
Campbell, S. B., & Cohn, J. F. (1991). Prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression in first-time mothers.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art.
Peugh, J. L., & Enders, C. K. (2004). Missing data in educational research: A review of reporting practices and suggestions for improvement.
Review of Educational Research,
Dennis, C. L., & McQueen, K. (2009). The relationship between infant-feeding outcomes and postpartum depression: A qualitative systematic review.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., et al. (2003).
Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cohen, J. (1988).
Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Dennis, C. L., & Ross, L. (2005). Relationships among infant sleep patterns, maternal fatigue, and development of depressive symptomatology.
Warren, S. L., Howe, G., Simmens, S. J., et al. (2006). Maternal depressive symptoms and child sleep: Models of mutual influence over time.
Development and Psychopathology,
Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh postnatal depression scale.
British Journal of Psychiatry,
Georgiopoulos, A. M., Bryan, T. L., Yawn, B. P., et al. (1999). Population-based screening for postpartum depression.
Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Garcia-Esteve, L., Ascaso, C., Ojuel, J., et al. (2003). Validation of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) in spanish mothers.
Journal of Affective Disorders,
Rich-Edwards, J. W., Kleinman, K., Abrams, A., et al. (2006). Sociodemographic predictors of antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms among women in a medical group practice.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health,
Hiscock, H., & Wake, M. (2002). Randomised controlled trial of behavioural infant sleep intervention to improve infant sleep and maternal mood.
British Medical Journal,
Spoth, R., Goldberg, C., & Redmond, C. (1999). Engaging families in longitudinal preventive intervention research: Discrete-time survival analysis of socioeconomic and social-emotional risk factors.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
Ramos-Gomez, F., Chung, L. H., Gonzalez Beristain, R., et al. (2008). Recruiting and retaining pregnant women from a community health center at the US-Mexico border for the mothers and youth access clinical trial.
Clinical Trials Journal,
Ronsaville, D. S., & Hakim, R. B. (2000). Well child care in the United States: Racial differences in compliance with guidelines.
American Journal of Public Health,
Moore, P., & Hepworth, J. T. (1994). Use of perinatal and infant health services by Mexican-American medicaid enrollees.
Journal of the American Medical Association,
Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., & Horwood, L. J. (1993). The effect of maternal depression on maternal ratings of child behavior.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,
McGrath, J. M., Records, K., & Rice, M. (2008). Maternal depression and infant temperament characteristics.
Infant Behavior and Development,
Pearce, H., & Ayers, S. (2005). The expected child versus the actual child: Implications for the mother-baby bond.
Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology,
Richters, J. E. (1992). Depressed mothers as informants about their children: A critical review of the evidence for distortion.
PubMed CrossRef Copyright information
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011