Substance Use Among Women: Associations with Pregnancy, Parenting, and Race/Ethnicity
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Objective To examine the association of pregnancy and parenting (0- to 2-year-old child) statuses with past 30-day use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, psychotherapeutics and cocaine among American women aged 18–44, overall and by race/ethnicity. Methods Five years of data (2002–2006) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were pooled. Binary logistic regression analyses stratified by race/ethnicity were performed to examine the relationships adjusting for age, marital status, education and family income. Results Overall, past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, psychotherapeutic or cocaine use was substantially lower among pregnant women, particularly in their second or third trimesters, than among their parenting or non-pregnant counterparts. Logistic regression analysis suggested a strong negative association between pregnancy status and substance use, with no considerable variations in the magnitude of the relationship by race/ethnicity for most measures. The relationship between parenting status and substance use was in the same direction, but relatively weak, and not statistically significant for non-Hispanic (NH) blacks for any measures except for alcohol use. Regardless of pregnancy and parenting statuses, NH white women reported substance use at the highest rates, followed by Hispanics and NH blacks. Conclusions There is indirect evidence of postpregnancy resumption in substance use. Pregnant and parenting women, regardless of race/ethnicity, could benefit from prevention efforts focusing on cessation rather than temporary abstinence from substance use.
- Behnke, M., & Eyler, F. D. (1993). The consequences of prenatal substance use for the developing fetus, newborn, and young child. The International Journal of the Addictions, 28(13), 1341–1391.
- May, P. A., & Gossage, J. P. (2001). Estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome: A summary. Alcohol Research & Health, 25(3), 159–167.
- Boyle, R. J. (2002). Effects of certain prenatal drugs on the fetus and newborn. Pediatrics in Review, 23(1), 17–24. doi:10.1542/pir.23-1-17. CrossRef
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2004). Alcohol alert. Rockville, MD. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 62, 2.
- U.S. Department of Health Human Services. (2001). Women and smoking: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
- Cnattingius, S. (2004). The epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy: Smoking prevalence, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 6, S125–S140. doi:10.1080/14622200410001669187. CrossRef
- Centers for Disease Control Prevention. (2004). Smoking during pregnancy-United States, 1990–2002. MMWR, 53(39), 911–915.
- March of Dimes. 2008. Quick reference: Fact sheets. Illicit drug use during pregnancy. Available at http://www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/14332_1169.asp. Accessed 16 April 2008.
- Kandall, S. R., & Gaines, J. (1991). Maternal substance use and subsequent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in offspring. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 13, 235–240. doi:10.1016/0892-0362(91)90016-P. CrossRef
- Faden, V. B., & Graubard, B. I. (2000). Maternal substance use during pregnancy and developmental outcome at age three. Journal of Substance Abuse, 12, 329–340. doi:10.1016/S0899-3289(01)00052-9. CrossRef
- Frank, D. A., Augustyn, M., Knight, W. G., Pell, T., & Zuckerman, B. (2001). Growth, development, and behavior in early childhood following prenatal cocaine exposure: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 1613–1625. doi:10.1001/jama.285.12.1613. CrossRef
- Brown, J. V., Backerman, R., Coles, C. D., Platzman, K. A., & Lynch, M. E. (2004). Prenatal cocaine exposure: A comparison of 2-year-old children in parental and nonparental care. Child Development, 75(4), 1282–1295. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00739.x. CrossRef
- Gergen, P. J., Fowler, J. A., Maurer, K. R., Davis, W. W., & Overpeck, M. D. (1998). The burden of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on the respiratory health of children 2 months through 5 years of age in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1994. Pediatrics, 101(2), 1–6. doi:10.1542/peds.101.2.e8. CrossRef
- Klerman, L. V. (2004). Protecting children: Reducing their environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 6, S239–S252. doi:10.1080/14622200410001669213. CrossRef
- Johnson, J. L., & Leff, M. (1999). Children of substance abusers: Overview of research findings. Pediatrics, 103(5), 1085–1099.
- Conners, N. A., Bradley, R. H., Mansell, L. W., Liu, J. Y., Roberts, T. J., Burgdorf, K., et al. (2003). Children of mothers with serious substance abuse problems: An accumulation of risks. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(4), 743–758. doi:10.1081/ADA-120026258. CrossRef
- Barnard, M., & McKeganey, N. (2004). The impact of parental problem drug use on children: What is the problem and what can be done to help. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 99, 552–559. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2003.00664.x.
- Kelleher, K., Chaffin, M., Hollenberg, J., & Fischer, E. I. (1994). Alcohol and drug disorders among physically abusive and neglectful parents in a community-based sample. American Journal of Public Health, 84(10), 1586–1590. CrossRef
- Mayes, L. (1995). Substance abuse and parenting. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), The handbook of parenting (pp. 101–125). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Suchman, N. E., & Luthar, S. S. (2000). Maternal addiction, child maladjustment and sociodemographic risks: Implications for parenting behaviors. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 95, 1417–1428. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.2000.959141711.x.
- Cohen, L. R., Hien, D. A., & Batchelder, S. (2008). The impact of cumulative maternal trauma and diagnosis on parenting behavior. Child Maltreatment, 13(1), 27–38. doi:10.1177/1077559507310045. CrossRef
- Bobo, J. K., Klepinger, D. H., & Dong, F. B. (2006). Changes in the prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy among recent and at-risk drinkers in the NLSY cohort. Journal of Women’s Health, 15(9), 1061–1070. doi:10.1089/jwh.2006.15.1061. CrossRef
- Arria, A. M., Derauf, C., LaGasse, L. L., Grant, P., et al. (2006). Methamphetamine and other substance use during pregnancy: Preliminary estimates from the Infant Development, Environment, and Life Style (IDEAL) Study. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 10(3), 293–302. doi:10.1007/s10995-005-0052-0. CrossRef
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1996). National Institute on Drug Abuse. National pregnancy & health survey – drug use among women delivering livebirths: 1992. NIH Publication No. 96-3819.
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1997). Substance use among women in the United States. Analytic series A-3. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, Analytic Series.
- Ebrahim, S. H., & Gfroerer, J. (2003). Pregnancy-related substance use in the United States during 1996–1998. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 101(2), 374–379. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02588-7. CrossRef
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2002). Substance use among pregnant women during 1999 and 2000. The NSDUH report. Rockville: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA.
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2005). Substance use during pregnancy: 2002–2003 update. The NSDUH report. Rockville: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA.
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2007). Cigarette use among pregnant women and recent mothers. The NSDUH report. Rockville: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA.
- Gfroerer, J. (2002). Introduction. In J. Gfroerer, J. Eyerman, & J. Chromy (Eds.), Redesigning an ongoing national household survey: Methodological issues. DHHS Publication No. SMA 03-3768. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Office of Applied Studies.
- Caetano, R., Ramisetty-Mikler, S., Floyd, L. R., & McGrath, C. (2006). The epidemiology of drinking amomg women of child-bearing age. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 30(6), 1023–1030. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00116.x. CrossRef
- Gilman, S. E., Breslau, J., Subramanian, S. V., Hitsman, B., & Koenen, K. C. (2008). Social factors, psychopathology, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. American Journal of Public Health, 98(3), 448–453. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.102772. CrossRef
- StataCorp LP. (2007). Stata survey data reference manual – release 10. College Station, TX: Stata Press.
- Markovic, N., Ness, R. B., Cefilli, D., et al. (2000). Substance use measures among women in early pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 183, 627–632. doi:10.1067/mob.2000.106450. CrossRef
- Sweeney, P. J., Schwartz, R. M., Mattis, N. G., & Vohr, B. (2000). The effect of integrating substance abuse treatment with prenatal care on birth outcome. Journal of Perinatology, 20(4), 219–224. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7200357. CrossRef
- Hans, S. L. (1999). Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of substance-abusing pregnant women. Clinical Perinataology, 26(1), 55–74.
- Funkhouser, A. W., Butz, A. M., Feng, T. I., McCaul, M. E., & Rosentein, B. J. (1993). Prenatal care and drug use in pregnant women. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 33, 1–9. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(93)90027-N. CrossRef
- Substance Use Among Women: Associations with Pregnancy, Parenting, and Race/Ethnicity
Maternal and Child Health Journal
Volume 13, Issue 3 , pp 376-385
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Substance use
- Marijuana, Psychotherapeutics
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Division of Population Surveys, Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room # 7-1023, Rockville, MD, 20857, USA
- 2. Division of Population Surveys, Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room # 7-1015, Rockville, MD, 20857, USA