Objective: To examine risk factors and sequela for post partum discharge against medical advice. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analyses of hospital discharge data linked to American Hospital Association data for women discharged following a live birth for California, Florida, and New York in the years 1998–2000. We examined rates, risk factors, hospital readmission rate and mortality (California only), associated with discharge against medical advice after controlling for patient and hospital characteristics. Results: Post partum discharge against medical advice averaged 0.10%. Rates were lowest among women following uncomplicated cesarean and vaginal births (0.07%), intermediate following complicated vaginal birth (0.21%) and highest following complicated cesarean birth (0.29%). African American race, lower income, public health insurance, no health insurance, or greater comorbidity, particularly drug abuse or psychotic illness, discharge from a hospital in California or New York (compared to Florida), and location in medium or large metropolitan areas, were associated with significantly higher rates of discharge against advice. Asian or Hispanic race or ethnicity and delivery at an obstetrical specialized hospital were associated with lower risk. Patients discharged against medical advice in California were significantly more likely to be re-admitted within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–3.9), though none died during the period. Conclusions: Discharge against medical advice among post partum patients is uncommon, but occurs primarily among vulnerable women with psychosocial and medical risk factors. Thus, discharge against medical advice may help identify women who may benefit from additional maternal and/or child services.