Alcohol Consumption and Time to Recognition of Pregnancy
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Objectives: Despite warnings to abstain from alcohol, American women who are or could become pregnant still drink. This study evaluates whether women who consume alcohol are at an increased risk of recognizing pregnancy later than women who do not, adjusting for confounding factors that have been associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Methods: The sample included 863 control women from a multisite case-control study conducted from 1996 to 2002 in the United States and Canada. Telephone interviews were conducted with mothers by trained nurse interviewers who administered standardized questionnaires on demographic and reproductive factors, and pregnancy exposures. Results: Alcohol consumption was classified as none (42.0%), occasional (31.9%), regular (15.6%), and heavy (10.5%). Time to recognition of pregnancy was calculated as the date pregnancy was suspected minus the last menstrual period date (median: 31 days; range: 7–227 days). Unadjusted Cox proportional hazard models found that regular drinkers, but not heavy drinkers, had a significantly higher risk of recognizing pregnancy later than non-drinkers. However, this association went away after adjustment for demographic factors. Among women with unplanned pregnancies, heavy alcohol intake was associated with a 45% increased hazard ratio, compared to 0.80 for women with planned pregnancies; however, this finding was not statistically significant. Conclusions: While time to pregnancy recognition did not vary among drinkers and non-drinkers, results from this study reiterate previous findings that pregnant women consume alcohol, and that drinkers share social and demographic characteristics that could be used to target public health interventions.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Alcohol consumption among women who are pregnant or who might become pregnant–United States, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004;53(50):1178–81.
- Beck LF, et al. PRAMS 1999 Surveillance Report. Atlanta, GA: Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003.
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much: A Clinician's Guide, 2005.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services news release. “U.S. Surgeon General Releases Advisory on Alcohol Use in Pregnancy: Urges women who are pregnant or who may become pregnant to abstain from alcohol.” Accessed at: http://www.hhs.gov/surgeongeneral/pressreleases/sg02222005. html
- Institute of Medicine. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment (Stratton K, Howe C, and Battaglia, eds). Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1996, p. 146.
- Konovalov HV, et al. Disorders of brain development in the progeny of mothers who used alcohol during pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1997;48:153–66. CrossRef
- Day NL, Richardson GA. An analysis of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth: a teratologic model. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2004;127:28–34. CrossRef
- Sokol RJ, Delaney-Black V, Nordstrom B. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. JAMA 2003;290(22):2996–99. CrossRef
- Floyd RL, Decoufle P, Hungerford DW. Alcohol use prior to pregnancy recognition. Am J Prev Med 1999;17(2):101–7. CrossRef
- Naimi TS, et al. Binge drinking in the preconception period and the risk of unintended pregnancy: implications for women and their children. Pediatrics 2003;111(5 Part 2):1136–41.
- Kost K, Landry DJ, Darroch JE. Predicting maternal behaviors during pregnancy: does intention status matter? Fam Plann Perspect 1998;30(2):79–88. CrossRef
- Emanuele MA, Wezeman F, Emanuele NV. Alcohol's effects on female reproductive function. Alcohol Res Health 2002;26(4):274–81.
- Jensen TK, et al. Does moderate alcohol consumption affect fertility? Follow up study among couples planning first pregnancy. BMJ 1998;317:505–10.
- Werler MM, et al. Demographic and reproductive factors associated with hemifacial microsoma. Cleft Palate-Craniofac J 2004;41(5):494–500. CrossRef
- Werler MM, et al. Vasoactive exposures, vascular events, and hemifacial microsomia. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2004;70:389–95. CrossRef
- Ebrahim SH, et al. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in the United States during 1988–95. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92(2):187–92. CrossRef
- Jacobson SW, et al. Maternal recall of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana use during pregnancy. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1991;13(5):535–40. CrossRef
- Jacobson SW, et al. Validity of maternal report of prenatal alcohol, cocaine, and smoking in relation to neurobehavioral outcome. Pediatrics 2002;109(5):815–25. CrossRef
- Kesmodel U, Frydenberg M. Binge drinking during pregnancy—is it possible to obtain valid information on a weekly basis? Am J Epidemiol 2004;159(8):803–8. CrossRef
- Ernhart CB, et al. Underreporting of alcohol use in pregnancy. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1988;12(4):506–11. CrossRef
- Buescher PA, et al. The quality of the new birth certificate data: a validation study in North Carolina. Am J Public Health 1993;83(8):1163–5. CrossRef
- Reichman NE, Hade EM. Validation of birth certificate data. A study of women in New Jersey's HealthStart program. Ann Epidemiol 2001;11(3):186–93. CrossRef
- Alcohol Consumption and Time to Recognition of Pregnancy
Maternal and Child Health Journal
Volume 10, Issue 6 , pp 467-472
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Alcohol consumption
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Data Coordinating Center, Boston University School of Public Health, 715 Albany St, 580, Boston, MA, 02118, USA
- 2. Epidemiology, Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University School of Public Health, 1010 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA, 02215, USA