, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 989-1001

Associations of Bird Species Richness and Community Composition with Local and Landscape-scale Environmental Factors in Borneo

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A comprehensive understanding of variables associated with spatial differences in community composition is essential to explain and predict biodiversity over landscape scales. In this study, spatial patterns of bird diversity in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, were examined and associated with local-scale (habitat structure and heterogeneity) and landscape-scale (logging, slope position and elevation) environmental variables. Within the study area (c. 196 km2) local habitat structure and heterogeneity varied considerably, largely due to logging. In total 9747 individuals of 177 bird species were recorded. Akaike's information criterion (AIC) revealed that the best explanatory models of bird community similarity and species richness included both local- and landscape-scale environmental variables. Important local-scale variables included liana abundance, fern cover, sapling density, tree density, dead wood abundance and tree architecture, while important landscape-scale variables were elevation, logging and slope position. Geographic distance between sampling sites was not significantly associated with spatial variation in either species richness or similarity. These results indicate that deterministic environmental processes, as opposed to dispersal-driven stochastic processes, primarily structure bird assemblages within the spatial scale of this study and confirm that highly variable local habitat measures can be effective means of predicting landscape-scale community patterns.