Seismic Cutlines, Changing Landscape Metrics and Grizzly Bear Landscape use in Alberta
Received: 19 November 2003 Accepted: 03 January 2005 DOI:
10.1007/s10980-005-0066-4 Cite this article as: Linke, J., Franklin, S.E., Huettmann, F. et al. Landscape Ecol (2005) 20: 811. doi:10.1007/s10980-005-0066-4 Abstract
Besides providing habitat to the grizzly bear (
Ursus arctos) and other wildlife, the Rocky Mountain foothills of Alberta, Canada hosts considerable mining, seismic oil and gas exploration and production, and forest harvesting activities. Worldwide, such human activities influence the configuration and composition of the landscape. We assessed seismic cutline effects on landscape structure and grizzly bear use during early summer of 1999 and 2000. We studied five female and two male bears, which were GPS-collared in the spring following den emergence. The area available to this population was stratified into 49 km 2 hexagon-shaped sub-landscapes. The scale of this stratification was determined by patterns of bear movement. Fourteen compositional and configurational landscape metrics were calculated within each landscape unit, and bear use points were pooled or ‘binned’ within each unit. Landscape use was related to landscape metrics using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM). We found that seismic cutline proportion did not explain landscape use by grizzly bears; however secondary effects of cutlines on landscape structure did. Declining use was mainly associated with increasing proportions of closed forest, and increasing variation of inter-patch distances, while use was mainly increasing with increasing mean patch size. An earlier investigation had demonstrated that adding seismic cutlines to grizzly bear habitat caused increases in the variation of inter-patch distances. Since the landscape structure of this grizzly bear population will continue to change as a function of increased levels of resource extraction activities in the near future, it is crucial to further study the detailed meaning of landscape structure at the large and small scale for effective conservation efforts. Keywords Binning Generalized linear models (GLM) GPS locations Landscape configuration Landscape ecology Landscape structure Satellite imagery Seismic cutlines Ursus arctos References Box, G.E.P., Jenkins, G.M. 1970Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control Holden-Day London, United Kingdom Google Scholar Boyce, M.S., McDonald, L.L. 1999 Relating populations to habitats using resource selection functions Trends Ecol. Evol. 14 268 272 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. 2002Model Selection and Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach2 Springer-Verlag New York, New York, USA Google Scholar Chapin, T.G., Harrison, D.J., Katnik, D.D. 1998 Influence of landscape pattern on habitat use by American Marten in and industrial forest Conserv. Biol. 12 1327 1337 CrossRef Google Scholar Davidson, C. 1998 Issues in measuring landscape fragmentation Wildlife Soc. Bull. 26 32 37 Google Scholar Diaz, N.M. 1996 Landscape metrics. A new tool for forest ecologists J. Forest. 94 12 16 Google Scholar Evans, I.S. 1972 General geomorphometry, derivatives of elevation, and descriptive statistics Chorley, R.J. eds. Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology Methuen London 17 90 Google Scholar Forman, R.T.T. 1997Land Mosaics, The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions Cambridge University Press CambridgeUnited Kingdom Google Scholar Fortin, M-J. 1999 Spatial statistics in landscape ecology Klopatek, J.M. Gardner, R.H. eds. Landscape Ecological Analysis, Issues and Applications Springer Verlag New York Google Scholar Frair Jacqueline, L., Nielsen, S.E., Merrill, E.H., Lele, S.R., Boyce, M.S., Munro, R.H.M., Stenhouse, G.B., Beyer, H.L. 2004 Removing GPS-collar bias in habitat selection studies J. Appl. Ecol. 41 201 212 CrossRef Google Scholar Franklin, S.E., Stenhouse, G.B., Hansen, M.J., Popplewell, C.C., Dechka, J.A., Peddle, D.R. 2001 An integrated decision tree approach (IDTA) to mapping landcover using satellite remote sensing in support of grizzly bear habitat analysis in the Alberta Yellowhead Ecosystem Can. J. Remote Sensing 27 579 591 Google Scholar Frohn, R.C. 1998Remote Sensing for Landscape Ecology. New Metric Indicators for Monitoring. Modeling, and assessment of Ecosystems Lewis Publishers New York Google Scholar Gibeau, M.L. 2000A Conservation Biology Approach to Management of Grizzly Bears in Banff National Park, Alberta University of Calgary Calgary, ABCanada 129 Google Scholar
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