Mouganie, T., Moram, M.A., Sumner, J. et al. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol (2005) 36: 87. doi:10.1007/s10971-005-2472-0
The formation of three sols by fluorine-free aqueous and non-aqueous processes were analyzed and modified to vary the chemical properties of the sols (inks) to suit a variety of deposition processes such as dip-coating and ink-jet coating/printing. Ink-jet printing requires high wetting angles; choosing the right complexing agents to modify the ink allows the formation of droplets with high wetting angles on the surface. Dip-coating and ink-jet coating require low wetting angles; additives added to the sols reduce wetting angles to 10∘ and allow complete coverage of the substrate surface. The deposition theories and requirements are briefly discussed, as are some initial tests with the printing and converting of the developed superconducting inks.