Relationship Between Multiple Sources of Perceived Social Support and Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence: Comparisons Across Gender
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (Malecki et al., A working manual on the development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (2000). Unpublished manuscript, Northern Illinois University, 2003) across gender, and demonstrated gender differences in perceptions of support in early adolescence. In addition, there were significant associations between all sources of support with depressive symptoms, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic adjustment, but fewer significant unique effects of each source. Parental support was a robust unique predictor of adjustment for both boys and girls, and classmates’ support was a robust unique predictor for boys. These results illustrate the importance of examining gender differences in the social experience of adolescents with careful attention to measurement and analytic issues.
- Bogard, K. L. (2005). Affluent adolescents, depression, and drug use: The role of adults in their lives. Adolescence, 40, 281–306.
- Cheng, C. (1997). Role of perceived social support on depression in Chinese adolescents: A prospective study examining the buffering model. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 800–820. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1997.tb00660.x. CrossRef
- Cheng, S., & Chan, A. C. M. (2004). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support: Dimensionality and age and gender differences in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1359–1369. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.01.006. CrossRef
- Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155. CrossRef
- Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
- Colarossi, L. G., & Eccles, J. S. (2003). Differential effects of support providers on adolescents’ mental health. Social Work Research, 27, 19–30.
- Davidson, L. M., & Demaray, M. K. (2007). Social support as a moderator between victimization and internalizing-externalizing distress from bullying. School Psychology Review, 36, 383–405.
- Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2002). Critical levels of social support associated with student adjustment. School Psychology Quarterly, 17, 213–241. doi:10.1521/scpq.184.108.40.20683. CrossRef
- Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2003). Perceptions of the frequency and importance of social support by students classified as victims, bullies, and bully/victims in an urban middle school. School Psychology Review, 32, 471–489.
- Demaray, M. K., Malecki, C. M., Davidson, L. M., Hodgson, K. K., & Rebus, P. J. (2005). The relationship between social support and student adjustment: A longitudinal analysis. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 691–706. doi:10.1002/pits.20120. CrossRef
- Dubow, E. F., Tisak, J., Causey, D., Hryshko, A., & Reid, G. (1991). A two-year longitudinal study of stressful life events, social support, and social problem-solving skills: Contributions to children’s behavioral and academic adjustment. Child Development, 62, 583–599. doi:10.2307/1131133. CrossRef
- Dunn, S. E., Putallaz, M., Sheppard, B. H., & Lindstrom, R. (1987). Social support and adjustment in gifted adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 467–473. doi:10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.117. CrossRef
- Eschenbeck, H., Kohlmann, C. W., & Lohaus, A. (2007). Gender differences in coping strategies in children and adolescents. Journal of Individual Differences, 28, 18–26. doi:10.1027/1614-0001.28.1.18. CrossRef
- Frey, C. U., & Röthlisberger, C. (1996). Social support in healthy adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 17–31. doi:10.1007/BF01537378. CrossRef
- Frydenberg, E., & Lewis, R. (1991). Adolescent coping: The different ways in which boys and girls cope. Journal of Adolescence, 14, 119–133. doi:10.1016/0140-1971(91)90025-M. CrossRef
- Frydenberg, E., & Lewis, R. (1993). Boys play sports and girls turn to others: Age, gender and ethnicity as determinants of coping. Journal of Adolescence, 16, 253–266. doi:10.1006/jado.1993.1024. CrossRef
- Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1992). Age and sex differences in perceptions of networks of personal relationships. Child Development, 63, 103–115. doi:10.2307/1130905. CrossRef
- Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the social support scale for children. Denver: University of Denver.
- Helsen, M., Vollebergh, W., & Meeus, W. (2000). Social support from parents and friends and emotional problems in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 319–335. doi:10.1023/A:1005147708827. CrossRef
- Hoffman, M. A., Ushpiz, V., & Levy-Shiff, R. (1988). Social support and self-esteem in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17, 307–316. doi:10.1007/BF01537672. CrossRef
- House, J. S. (1981). Work stress and social support. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
- Jackson, Y., & Warren, J. S. (2000). Appraisal, social support, and life events: Predicting outcome behavior in school-age children. Child Development, 71, 1441–1457. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00238. CrossRef
- Kerr, D. C. R., Preuss, L. J., & King, C. A. (2006). Suicidal adolescents’ social support from family and peers: Gender-specific associations with psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 103–113. doi:10.1007/s10802-005-9005-8. CrossRef
- Landman-Peeters, K. M. C., Hartman, C. A., van der Pompe, G., den Boer, J. A., Minderaa, R. B., & Ormel, J. (2005). Gender differences in the relation between social support, problems in parent-offspring communication, and depression and anxiety. Social Science and Medicine, 60, 2549–2559. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.10.024. CrossRef
- Licitra-Kleckler, D. M., & Waas, G. A. (1993). Perceived social support among high-stress adolescents: The role of peers and family. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8, 381–402. doi:10.1177/074355489384003. CrossRef
- Lifrak, P. D., McKay, J. R., Rostain, A., Alterman, A. I., & O’Brien, C. P. (1997). Relationship of perceived competencies, perceived social support, and gender to substance use in young adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 933–940. doi:10.1097/00004583-199707000-00015. CrossRef
- Maccoby, E. E. (1990). Gender and relationships: A developmental account. The American Psychologist, 45, 513–520. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.45.4.513. CrossRef
- Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2002). Measuring perceived social support: Development of the child and adolescent social support scale. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 1–18. doi:10.1002/pits.10004. CrossRef
- Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2003). What type of support do they need? Investigating student adjustment as related to emotional, informational, appraisal, and instrumental support. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 231–252. doi:10.1521/scpq.18.104.22.16876. CrossRef
- Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2006). Social support as a buffer in the relationship between socioeconomic status and academic performance. School Psychology Quarterly, 21, 375–395. doi:10.1037/h0084129. CrossRef
- Malecki, C. K., Demaray, M. K., & Elliott, S. N.(2003). A working manual on the development of the child and adolescent social support scale (2000). Unpublished manuscript. Northern Illinois University.
- Moran, P. B., & Eckenrode, J. (1991). Gender differences in the costs and benefits of peer relationships during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Research, 6, 396–409. doi:10.1177/074355489164002. CrossRef
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. (1998). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
- Newman, B. M., Newman, P. R., Griffen, S., O’Connor, K., & Spas, J. (2007). The relationship of social support to depressive symptoms in the transition to high school. Adolescence, 42, 441–459.
- Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, J. C. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc.
- Reddy, R., Rhodes, J. E., & Mulhall, P. (2003). The influence of teacher support on student adjustment in the middle school years: A latent growth curve study. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 119–138. doi:10.1017/S0954579403000075. CrossRef
- Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). The behavioral assessment system for children (2nd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service, Inc.
- Rosenfeld, L. B., Richman, J. M., & Bowen, G. L. (2000). Social support networks and school outcomes: The centrality of the teacher. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 17, 205–225. doi:10.1023/A:1007535930286. CrossRef
- Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. Gender differences in the relationship between perceived social support and student adjustment during early adolescence. School Psychology Quarterly, in press.
- Schraedley, M. A., Gotlib, I. H., & Hayward, C. (1999). Gender differences in correlates of depressive symptoms in adolescents. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 25, 98–108. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(99)00038-5. CrossRef
- Sheeber, L., Hops, H., Alpert, A., Davis, B., & Andrews, J. (1997). Family support and conflict: Prospective relations to adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 333–344. doi:10.1023/A:1025768504415. CrossRef
- Slavin, L. A., & Rainer, K. L. (1990). Gender differences in emotional support and depressive symptoms among adolescents: A prospective analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 407–421. doi:10.1007/BF00938115. CrossRef
- Tardy, C. H. (1985). Social support measurement. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 187–202. doi:10.1007/BF00905728. CrossRef
- Van Beest, M., & Baerveldt, C. (1999). The relationship between adolescents’ social support from parents and from peers. Adolescence, 34, 194–201.
- Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4–70. doi:10.1177/109442810031002. CrossRef
- Wall, J., Covell, K., & MacIntyre, P. D. (1999). Implications of social supports for adolescents’ education and career aspirations. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 31, 63–71. doi:10.1037/h0087074.
- Way, N., & Robinson, M. G. (2003). A longitudinal study of the effects of family, friends, and school experiences on the psychological adjustment of ethnic minority, low-SES adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18, 324–346. doi:10.1177/0743558403018004001. CrossRef
- Weist, M. D., Freedman, A. H., Paskewitz, D. A., Proescher, E. J., & Flaherty, L. T. (1995). Urban youth under stress: Empirical identification of protective factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 705–719. doi:10.1007/BF01536952. CrossRef
- Winemiller, D. R., Mitchell, M. E., Sutliff, F., & Cline, D. J. (1993). Measurement strategies in social support: A descriptive review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 638–648. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(199309)49:5<638::AID-JCLP2270490505>3.0.CO;2-7. CrossRef
- Ystgaard, M. (1997). Life stress, social support and psychological distress in late adolescence. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 32, 277–283. CrossRef
- Relationship Between Multiple Sources of Perceived Social Support and Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence: Comparisons Across Gender
Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Volume 39, Issue 1 , pp 47-61
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Social support
- Gender differences