The Development of Stereotypes About the Rich and Poor: Age, Race, and Family Income Differences in Beliefs
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
African American and European American 4th, 6th, and 8th graders rated the competence of rich and poor children in academics (i.e., math, science, reading, writing, school grades, smartness), sports, and music. In contrast to middle school students, 4th graders favored the rich in all 3 domains. Youth of both races reported that the rich were more competent in academics than the poor; these beliefs were especially pronounced among Black youth. White, older, and more affluent students favored the poor in sports, whereas their counterparts either favored the rich or were egalitarian. No interactions were found between grade and race or grade and family income. The implications of these beliefs for policy and identity development theory are discussed.
- Aronson, J. (2002). Stereotype threat: Contending and coping with unnerving expectations. In Aronson, J. (ed.), Improving Academic Achievement: Impact of Psychological Factors on Education. Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp. 281–299.
- Bigler, R. S., Brown, C. S., and Markell, M. (2001). When groups are not created equal: Effects of group status on the formation of intergroup attitudes in children. Child Dev. 72: 1151–1162. CrossRef
- Bigler, R. S., and Liben, L. S. (1992). Cognitive mechanisms in children's gender stereotyping: Theoretical and educational implications of a cognitive-based intervention. Child Dev. 63: 1351–1363.
- Bigler, R. S., and Liben, L. S. (1993). A cognitive-developmental approach to racial stereotyping and reconstructive memory in Euro-American children. Child Dev. 64: 1507–1518.
- Bornholt, L. J., Goodnow, J. J., and Cooney, G. H. (1994). Influences of gender stereotypes on adolescents' perceptions of their own achievement. Am. Educ. Res. J. 31: 675–692.
- Bullock, H. E. (1995). Class acts: Middle-class responses to the poor. In Lott, B., and Maluso, D. (eds.), Social Psychology of Interpersonal Discrimination. Guilford, New York, pp. 118–159.
- Bullock, H. E. (1999). Attributions for poverty: A comparison of middle-class and welfare recipient attitudes. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 29: 2059–2082.
- Bullock, H. E., Wyche, K. F., and Williams, W. R. (2001). Media images of the poor. J. Soc. Issues 57: 229–246. CrossRef
- Chafel, J. A. (1995). Children's conceptions of poverty. Adv. Early Educ. Day Care 7: 27–57.
- Chafel, J. A. (1997). Societal images of poverty: Child and adult beliefs. Youth Soc. 28(4): 432–463.
- Cozzarelli, C., Wilkinson, A. V., and Tagler, M. J. (2001). Attitudes toward the poor and attributions for poverty. J. Soc. Issues 57: 207–227. CrossRef
- Crocker, J., and Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychol. Rev. 96: 608–630. CrossRef
- Croizet, J.-C., and Claire, T. (1998). Extending the concept of stereotype threat to social class: The intellectual underperformance of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Pers. Psychol. Bull. 24(6): 588–594.
- Croizet, J.-C., Desert, M., Dutrevis, M., and Leyens, J. (2001). Stereotype threat, social class, gender, and academic under-achievement: When our reputation catches up to us and takes over. Soc. Psychol. Educ. 4: 295–310. CrossRef
- Freedman-Doan, C., Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Blumenfeld, P., Arbreton, A., and Harold, R. D. (2000). What am I best at? Grade and gender differences in children's beliefs about ability improvement. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 21: 379–402. CrossRef
- Hamilton, D. L., Stroessner, S. J., and Driscoll, D. M. (1994). Social cognition and the study of stereotyping. In Devine, P. G., Hamilton, D. L., and Ostrom, T. M. (eds.), Social Cognition: Impact on Social Psychology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 292–316.
- Hunt, M. O. (1996). The individual, society, or both? A comparison of Black, Latino, and White beliefs about the causes of poverty. Soc. Forces 75: 293–322.
- Huston, A. C. (1994). Children in poverty: Designing research to affect policy. Soc. Policy Rep. Soc. Res. Child Dev. 8(3): 1–12.
- Leahy, R. L. (1981). The development of the conceptions of economic inequality. I. Descriptions and comparisons of rich and poor people. Child Dev. 52: 523–532.
- Leahy, R. L. (1983). Development of the conception of economic inequality: II. Explanations, justifications, and concepts of social mobility and change. Dev. Psychol. 19(1): 111–125. CrossRef
- Lott, B. (2002). Cognitive and behavioral distancing from the poor. Am. Psychol. 57(2): 100–110. CrossRef
- Pajares, F., and Schunk, D. H. (2002). Self and self-belief in psychology and education: A historical perspective. In Aronson, J. (ed.), Improving Academic Achievement: Impact of Psychological Factors on Education. Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp. 5–21.
- Ruble, T. L, Cohen, R., and Ruble, D. N. (1984). Sex stereotypes: Occupational barriers for women. Am. Behav. Sci. 27: 339–356.
- Shapiro, I., Greenstein, R., and Primus, W. (2001, May 31). Pathbreaking CBO study shows dramatic increases in income disparities in 1980s and 1990s: An analysis of CBO data. Retrieved December 17, 2001, from the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities Web site: http://www.cbpp.org/5-31-01tax.htm.
- Skafte, D. (1988). The effect of perceived wealth and poverty on adolescents' character judgments. J. Soc. Psychol. 129(1): 93–99.
- Snyder, M., and Stukas, A. A. (1999). Interpersonal processes: The interplay of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral activities in social interaction. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 50: 273–303. CrossRef
- Steele, C. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape the intellectual identities and performance of women and African Americans. Am. Psychol. 52: 613–629. CrossRef
- Stendler, C. (1949). Children of Brasstown. The University of Illinois Press, Urbana.
- Tajfel, H. (1970). Experiments in intergroup discrimination. Sci. Am. 233: 96–102.
- Tajfel, H., and Billig, M. (1974). Familiarity and categorization in intergroup behavior. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 10: 159–170. CrossRef
- Tiedemann, J. (2000). Parents' gender stereotypes and teachers' beliefs as predictors of children's concept of their mathematical ability in elementary school. J. Educ. Psychol. 92: 144–151. CrossRef
- U.S. Census Bureau. (2003). American Community Survey 2003 Data Profile [Data file]. http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/Profiles/Single/2003/ACS/Tabular/010/01000US3.htm. Retrieved September 29, 2004.
- Weinger, S. (1998). Poor children “know their place”: Perceptions of poverty, class, and public messages. J. Sociol. Soc. Welfare 25: 100–118.
- Weinstein, E. (1958). Children's conceptions of occupational stratification. Sociol. Soc. Res. 42: 278–284.
- The Development of Stereotypes About the Rich and Poor: Age, Race, and Family Income Differences in Beliefs
Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Volume 34, Issue 5 , pp 437-445
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- stereotype development
- social class
- achievement related beliefs
- education policy
- identity development