, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 565-600,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 17 Dec 2009

DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector


Directivity effects are a characteristic of seismic source finiteness and are a consequence of the rupture spread in preferential directions. These effects are manifested through seismic spectral deviations as a function of the observation location. The directivity by Doppler effect method permits estimation of the directions and rupture velocities, beginning from the duration of common pulses, which are identified in waveforms or relative source time functions. The general model of directivity that supports the method presented here is a Doppler analysis based on a kinematic source model of rupture (Haskell, Bull Seismol Soc Am 54:1811–1841, 1964) and a structural medium with spherical symmetry. To evaluate its performance, we subjected the method to a series of tests with synthetic data obtained from ten typical seismic ruptures. The experimental conditions studied correspond with scenarios of simple and complex, unilaterally and bilaterally extended ruptures with different mechanisms and datasets with different levels of azimuthal coverage. The obtained results generally agree with the expected values. We also present four real case studies, applying the method to the following earthquakes: Arequipa, Peru (M w = 8.4, June 23, 2001); Denali, AK, USA (M w = 7.8; November 3, 2002); Zemmouri–Boumerdes, Algeria (M w = 6.8, May 21, 2003); and Sumatra, Indonesia (M w = 9.3, December 26, 2004). The results obtained from the dataset of the four earthquakes agreed, in general, with the values presented by other authors using different methods and data.