Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 171–198

Information Retrieval in Tip of the Tongue States: New Data and Methodological Advances

  • Britta Biedermann
  • Nicolas Ruh
  • Lyndsey Nickels
  • Max Coltheart
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10936-007-9065-8

Cite this article as:
Biedermann, B., Ruh, N., Nickels, L. et al. J Psycholinguist Res (2008) 37: 171. doi:10.1007/s10936-007-9065-8

Abstract

Research on Tip of the Tongue (ToT) states has been used to determine whether access to syntactic information precedes access to phonological information. This paper argues that previous studies have used insufficient analyses when investigating the nature of seriality of access. In the first part of this paper, these complex issues are discussed and suitable analyses proposed. In the second part, new experimental data are presented. In Experiment 1, English speakers were asked to give information about mass/count status and initial phoneme of nouns, when in a ToT state. In Experiment 2, German speakers were asked to report grammatical gender and initial phoneme of nouns, when in a ToT state. Evidence that syntactic and phonological information are accessed independently was obtained for both languages. Implications for models of language production and further methodological issues in ToT research are discussed.

Keywords

Tip of the tongue state Syntactic mediation theory Lemma level  Independent Network model Two-Stage model 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Britta Biedermann
    • 1
  • Nicolas Ruh
    • 2
  • Lyndsey Nickels
    • 1
  • Max Coltheart
    • 1
  1. 1.Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science (MACCS)Macquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.School of PsychologyBirkbeck College, University of LondonLondonUK

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