Original Article

Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 69-85

First online:

Grammatical Gender in Speech Production: Evidence from Czech

  • Denisa BordagAffiliated withDepartment of Linguistics, University of Leipzig Email author 
  • , Thomas PechmannAffiliated withDepartment of Linguistics, University of Leipzig

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Three experiments demonstrate gender congruency effects (i.e., naming times of a picture are faster when the name of the target picture and a distractor noun are gender congruent) in Czech. In the first experiment, subjects named the pictures by producing gender-marked demonstrative pronouns and a noun. In the second and third experiments, subjects produced a gender-marked numeral (marked with a suffix) plus a noun. Two types of such suffixes exist in Czech. Some numerals vary in nominative singular with gender, others do not. The results show significant gender congruency effects in all experiments. They suggest that gender congruency effects can be obtained not only with free, but also with bound morphemes. In the second and third experiment the effect only emerged when the suffix was gender-marked (as opposed to gender-invariant), supporting the view that the gender congruency effect is due to competition at the level of phonological forms rather than at the grammatical level.


Grammatical gender Czech Gender congruency effect Speech production