The Effects of City-Wide Implementation of “Second Step” on Elementary School Students’ Prosocial and Aggressive Behaviors
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- Cooke, M.B., Ford, J., Levine, J. et al. J Primary Prevent (2007) 28: 93. doi:10.1007/s10935-007-0080-1
This study examined the impact of implementing Second Step, a violence prevention program, using a comprehensive, city-wide approach. The evaluation included 741 3rd–5th graders in six schools. Student surveys, behavioral observations, and discipline referrals were used to assess aggressive-antisocial and prosocial behaviors. We found significant improvements in positive approach-coping, caring-cooperative behavior, suppression of aggression, and consideration of others, but no changes in aggressive-antisocial behaviors. Behavioral observations and disciplinary referrals showed no significant changes. The program was implemented with high fidelity and engaged a wide range of participants from the community.
Editors’ Strategic Implications: Key implementation issues are presented for a cross-site, city-wide evaluation on “Second Step.” School and community officials will benefit from these lessons, as well as the authors’ recommendations for further longitudinal study with appropriate comparison groups.