The sedimentary record of environmental lead contamination at St. Louis, Missouri (USA) area smelters
Received: 12 March 2004 Accepted: 03 September 2004 DOI:
Cite this article as: Vermillion, B., Brugam, R., Retzlaff, W. et al. J Paleolimnol (2005) 33: 189. doi:10.1007/s10933-004-4078-x Abstract
Southeastern Missouri has been a major Pb mining region since 1720 AD. Missouri mines produce a Pb ore that has a distinctive elevated
206Pb/ 207Pb isotopic ratio (>1.30) that is easily recognized in Pb-contaminated sediments. Five 210Pb dated sediment cores from Horseshoe Lake, Madison County, Illinois were examined to reconstruct Pb-contamination of the site from southeastern Missouri mines and from a local Pb smelter located adjacent to the lake. Pb concentrations increased in the cores from 5 ppm in the early 1800’s to approximately 350 ppm in the late 1940’s and 1950’s. Pb concentrations in recently deposited sediment range from 100 to 300 ppm depending on the location within the lake. Throughout the 1800’s and early 1900’s the 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios in the sediment cores increased indicating contamination from southeastern Missouri (mean = 1.243). After the local smelter began recycling lead-acid storage batteries in the 1950’s, the 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio declined (mean = 1.224) suggesting contamination of Horseshoe Lake with Pb from sources elsewhere around the world. The results of this study demonstrate how isotopic ratios of Pb can be used to reconstruct historical anthropogenic contamination. Keywords Pb isotopes Pb pollution Heavy metals Lake sediment Pb smelting References Anonymous 1882History of Madison W.R. Brink & Co County, Illinois 603 Google Scholar Appleby, P.G., Oldfield, F. 1978 The calculation of lead-210 dates assuming a constant rate of supply of unsupported 210Pb to the sediment Catena 5 1 8 Google Scholar Binford, M. 1990 Calculation and uncertainty analysis of 210Pb dates for PIRLA project lake sediment cores J. Paleolimnol. 3 253 268 Google Scholar Bosworth, C., Jr. 1982Granite City Waste Pile Has Officials in Quandary St. Louis Post-Dispatch St. Louis, MO Google Scholar Boyle, J.F., Rose, N.L., Bennion, H., Yang, H., Appleby, P.G. 1999 Environmental impacts in the Jianghan Plain: evidence from lake sediments Water Air Soil Poll. 112 21 40 Google Scholar Brännvall, M.-L., Bindler, R., Emteryd, I.R.O., Bartnicki, J., Billström, K. 1999 The medieval metal industry was the cradle of modern large-scale atmospheric lead pollution in Northern Europe Environ. Sci. Technol. 33 4391 4395 Google Scholar Brännvall, M.-L., Bindler, R., Emteryd, O., Renberg, I. 2001 Four thousand years of atmospheric lead pollution in Northern Europe: a summary from Swedish lake sediments J. Paleolimnol. 25 421 435 Google Scholar Brown, J.S. 1962 Ore leads and isotopes Econ. Geol. 57 673 720 Google Scholar Brugam, R.B., Bala, I., Martin, J., Vermillion, B., Retzlaff, W. 2003 The sedimentary record of environmental contamination at Horseshoe LakeMadison County, Illinois Trans. Ill. St. Acad. Sci. 96 205 218 Google Scholar Chow, T.J., Earl, J.L. 1970 Lead aerosols in the atmosphere: increasing concentrations Science 160 577 580 Google Scholar Colten, C.E. 1988Historical Assessment of Hazardous Waste Management In Madison and St. Claire Counties, Illinois, 1890–1980 Illinois State Museum Springfield Google Scholar Craig, J.R., Rimstidt, J.D., Bonnaffon, C.A., Collins, T.K., Scanlon, P.F. 1999 Surface Water Transport of Lead at a Shooting Range Environ. Contam. Technol. 63 312 319 Google Scholar Doe, B.R. 1970Lead Isotopes Springer Verlag New York Google Scholar
Eades L.J., Farmer J.G., MacKenzie A.B., Kirika A. and Bailey-Watts A.E. 2002. Stable lead isotopic characterization of the historical record of environmental lead contamination in dated freshwater lake sediment cores from northern and central Scotland. Sci. Total Environ. 292: 55–67.
Graney, J.R., Halliday, A.N., Keeler, G.J., Nriagu, J.O., Robbins, J.A., Norton, S.A. 1995 Isotopic record of lead pollution in lake sediments from the northeastern United States Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59 1715 1728 Google Scholar Grimley, D.A. 2000 Glacial and nonglacial sediment contributions to Wisconsin episode loess in the central United States GSA Bulletin 112 1475 1495 Google Scholar Goldhaber, M.B., Church, S.E., Doe, B.R., Aleinikoff, J.N., Brannon, J.C., Podosek, F.A., Moiser, E.L., Taylor, C.D., Gent, C.A. 1995 Lead and sulfur isotope investigation of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks from the Southern Mid-continent of the United States: implications for paleohydrology and ore genesis of the Southeast Missouri Lead Belts Econ. Geol. 90 1875 1910 Google Scholar Gehy, M.A., Schotterer, U., Grosjean, M. 1998 Temporal change in the C-14 reservoir effect in lakes Radiocarbon 40 921 931 Google Scholar Hill, T.E., Evans, R.L., Bell, J.S. 1981Water Quality Assessment of Horseshoe Lake SWS Contract Report Illinois Institute of Natural Resources Peoria Google Scholar Kharkar, D.P., Thomson, J., Turekian, H.K., Forster, W.O. 1976 Uranium and Thorium in decay series nuclides in plankton from the Caribbean Limnol. Oceanogr. 21 296 301 Google Scholar Lin, Z.Q., Schemenauer, R.S., Schuepp, P.H., Barthakur, N.N., Kennedy, G.G. 1997 Airborne metal pollutants in high elevation forests of southern Quebec, Canadaand their likely source regions Agric. For. Meteorol. 87 41 54 Google Scholar March, D.D. 1967The History of Missouri Lewis Historical Publishing Company New York, NY Google Scholar Ollendorf, A.L. 1993Changing Landscapes in the American Bottom (United States of America): An Interdisciplinary Investigation with an Emphasis on the Late-prehistoric and Early-historic Periods University of Minnesota Minneapolis Google Scholar Rabinowitz, M.B., Wetherill, G.W. 1972 Indentifying sources of lead contamination by stable isotope techniques Environ. Sci. Technol. 6 705 709 Google Scholar Samuel, M.D., Bowers, E.F. 2000 Lead exposure in American black ducks after implementation of non-toxic shot J. Wildlife Manage. 64 947 957 Google Scholar Schoolcraft, H.R. 1819A View of the Lead Mines of Missouri (1972 Reprint Edition) Arno Press New York Google Scholar Shotyk, W., Blaser, P., Grunig, A., Cheburkin, A.K. 2000 A new approach for quantifying cumulative anthropogenic, atmospheric lead deposition using peat cores from bogs: Pb in eight Swiss peat bog profiles Sci. Total Environ. 249 281 295 Google Scholar Shotyk, W., Weiss, D., Kramers, J.D., Frei, F., Cheburkin, A.K., Gloor, M., Reese, S. 2001 Geochemistry of the peat bog at Etang de la GruèreJura Mountains, Switzerlandand its record of atmospheric Pb and lithogenic trace metals (Sc, TiY, Zrand REE) since 12, 730 14C yr BP Geochmica. Cosmochimica Acta 65 2337 2360 Google Scholar Siver, P.A., Wozniak, J.A. 2001 Lead analysis of sediment cores from seven Connecticut lakes J. Paleolimnol. 26 1 10 Google Scholar Smol, J.P. 2002Pollution of Lakes and Rivers Edward Arnold London Google Scholar Sonke, J.E., Hoogewerff, J.A., der Laan, S.R., Vangronsveld, J. 2002 A chemical and mineralogical reconstruction of Zn-smelter emissions in the Kempen region (Belgium), based on organic pool sediment cores Sci. Total Environ. 292 101 109 Google Scholar Sonke, J.E., Burnett, W.C., Hoogewerff, J.A., der Laan, S.R., Vangronsveld, J., Corbett, D.R. 2003 Reconstructing 20th century lead pollution and sediment focusing in a peat land pool (Kempen, Belgium) via 210Pb dating J. Paleolimnol. 29 95 107 Google Scholar Steding, D.J., Dunlap, C.E., Flegal, A.R. 2000 New isotopic evidence for chronic lead contamination in the San Francisco Bay estuary system: implication for the persistence of past industrial lead emissions in the biosphere Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 11181 11186 Google Scholar Szymanowska, A., Samecka-Cymnerman, A., Kempers, A.J. 1999 Heavy Metals in Three Lakes in West Poland Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 43 21 29 Google Scholar Thompson, H.C. 1955Our Lead Belt Heritage (1992 Reprint edition) Walworth Publishing Co. MarcelineMO Google Scholar
USEPA. 2003. NPL Fact Sheets for Illinois: NL Industries/Taracorp Smelter. DPA ID #ILD096731.
Vermillion, B. 2003Major Element and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Horseshoe LakeMadison Co., IL Southern Illinois University Edwardsville EdwardsvilleIL Google Scholar von Gunten, H.R., Sturm, M., Moser, R.N. 1997 200-year record of metals in lake sediments and natural background concentrations Environ. Sci. Technol. 31 2193 2197 Google Scholar Wright, H.E. 1980 Cores of soft lake sediments Boreas 9 107 114 Google Scholar Zhang, Y. 2003 100 years of Pb deposition and transport in soils in Champaign, Illinois, USA WaterAir Soil Poll. 146 197 210 Google Scholar