Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 369–376

Disease progression and neuroscience

Review Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10928-013-9316-2

Cite this article as:
Holford, N. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn (2013) 40: 369. doi:10.1007/s10928-013-9316-2


The concepts of disease progression are discussed in the context of neurological disorders. The importance of understanding the time course of the response to inactive (placebo) treatment is discussed. Disease progression and response to placebo treatment both need to be considered before drug effects can be reliably identified. Criteria for distinguishing between symptomatic and disease modifying drug effects are proposed and used to interpret the results of clinical trials in pain, depression, schizophrenia, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.


Disease progressionNeuroprotectionDisease modifyingNeuroscienceAlzheimer’sParkinson’s

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology & Clinical PharmacologyUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand