, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 243-255
Date: 23 Apr 2010

A two-compartment effect site model describes the bispectral index after different rates of propofol infusion

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Different estimates of the rate constant for the effect site distribution (ke0) of propofol, depending on the rate and duration of administration, have been reported. This analysis aimed at finding a more general pharmacodynamic model that could be used when the rate of administration is changed during the treatment. In a cross-over study, 21 healthy volunteers were randomised to receive a 1 min infusion of 2 mg/kg of propofol at one occasion, and a 1 min infusion of 2 mg/kg of propofol immediately followed by a 29 min infusion of 12 mg kg−1 h−1 of propofol at another occasion. Arterial plasma concentrations of propofol were collected up to 4 h after dosing, and BIS was collected before start of infusion and until the subjects were fully awake. The population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis was performed using NONMEM VI. A four-compartment PK model with time-dependent elimination and distribution described the arterial propofol concentrations, and was used as input to the pharmacodynamic model. A standard effect compartment model could not accurately describe the delay in the effects of propofol for both regimens, whereas a two-compartment effect site model significantly improved the predictions. The two-compartment effect site model included a central and a peripheral effect site compartment, possibly representing a distribution within the brain, where the decrease in BIS was linked to the central effect site compartment concentrations through a sigmoidal Emax model.