Gatchel RJ, Polatin PB, Mayer TG. The dominant role of psychosocial risk factors in the development of chronic low back disability. Spine 1995; 20: 2701–2709.
Feuerstein M, Berkowitz SM, Huang GD. Predictors of occupational low back disability: Implications for secondary prevention. J Occup Environ Med
1999; 41: 1024–1031.PubMed
Waddell G. The back pain revolution. Edinburg: Churchill Livingstone, 1998.
Gatchel RJ. Musculoskeletal disorders: primary and secondary interventions. J Electrom Kinesiol
2004; 14: 161–170.CrossRef
Linton SJ. New avenues for the prevention of chronic musculoskeletal pain and disability. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2002.
Turk DC. A diathesis-stress model of chronic pain and disability following traumatic injury. Pain Res Manag 2002; 7: 9–19.
Sullivan T, Frank J. Restating disability or disabling the state: Four challenges. In: Sullivan T, ed. Injury and the new world of work. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2000.
Dionne CE. Low back pain. In: Crombie IK, ed. Epidemiology of pain. Seattle: IASP Press, 1999.
Spitzer WO, LeBlanc FE, Dupuis M. A scientific approach to the assessment and management of activity related spinal disorders: A monograph for clinicians. Report of the Quebec Task Force on Spinal Disorders. Spine 1987; 12(Supp 75): S3–S59.
Frank J, Sinclair S, Hogg-Johnson S, Shannon H, Bombardier C, Beaton D, Cole D. Preventing disability from work-related low-back pain - new evidence gives new hope—if we can just get all the players onside. Can Med Assoc J 1998; 158: 1625–1631.
Williams DA, Feuerstein M, Durbin D, Pezzullo J. Health care and indemnity costs across natural history of disability in occupational low back pain. Spine
1998; 21: 2329–2336.CrossRef
Schultz IZ, Crook J, Meloche GR, Berkowitz J, Milner R, Zuberbier OA, Meloche W. Psychosocial predictors of occupational low back disability: Towards development of a return-to-work model. Pain
2004; 107: 77–85.CrossRefPubMed
Waddell G, Burton AK, Main CJ. Screening to identify people at risk of long-term incapacity for work. London, UK: Royal Society of Medicine Press, 2003.
Feuerstein M, Thebarge RW. Perceptions of disability and occupational stress as discriminatory of work disability in in patients with chronic pain. J Occup Rehab
1991; 1: 185–195.CrossRef
Feuerstein M, Huang GD, Haufler AJ, Miller JK. Development of a screen for predicting clinical outcomes in patients with work-related upper extremity disorders. J Occup Environ Med
2000; 42: 749–761.PubMed
Linton SJ. Do psychological factors increase risk for back pain in the general population in both cross-sectional and prospective analysis? Eur J Pain, in press.
Sullivan MJL, Stanish W, Waite H, Sullivan ME, Tripp D. Catastrophizing, pain, and disability following soft tissue injuries. Pain
1998; 77: 253–260.CrossRefPubMed
Vlaeyen JWS, Linton SJ. Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: A state of the art. Pain
2000; 85: 31–332.CrossRefPubMed
Burton AK, Tillotson KM, Main CJ, Hollis S. Psychosocial predictors of outcome in acute and subchronic low back trouble. Spine
1995; 20: 722–728.PubMed
Pincus T, Burton AK, Vogel S, Field AP. A systematic review of psychological factors as predictors of chronicity/disability in prospective cohorts of low back pain. Spine
2002; 27: E109–E120.CrossRefPubMed
Pincus T, Vlaeyen JW, Kendall NA, Von Korff MR, Kalauokalani DA, Reis S. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychosocial risk factors in low back pain: Directions for the future. Spine
2002; 27: E133–E138.CrossRefPubMed
McNeil DW, Au AR, Zvolensky MJ, McKee DR, Klineberg IJ, Ho CCK. Fear of pain in orofacial patients. Pain
2001; 89: 245–252.CrossRefPubMed
Buer N, Linton SJ. Fear-avoidance beliefs and catastrophizing: Occurrence and risk factor in back pain and ADL in the general population. Pain
2002; 99: 485–491.CrossRefPubMed
Klenerman L, Slade PD, Stanley M, Pennie B, Reilly JP, Atchison LE, Troup JDG, Rose MJ. The prediction of chronicity in patients with an acute attack of low back pain in a general practice setting. Spine
1995; 20: 478–484.PubMed
Gheldof ELM, Vinck J, Vlaeyen JWS, Hidding A, Crombez G. The differential role of pain, work characteristics and pain-related fear in explaining back pain and sick leave in occupational settings. Pain
, 2005; 113: 71–81.CrossRefPubMed
Sullivan MJL, Thorn B, Haythornthwaite JA, Keefe FJ, Martin M, Bradley LA, Lefebvre JC. Theoretical perspectives on the relation between catastrophizing and pain. Clin J Pain
2001; 17: 52–64.CrossRefPubMed
Severeinjs R, Vlaeyen JWS, van den Hout MA, Picavet HSJ. Pain catastrophizing is associated with heath indices in musculoskeletal pain: A cross-sectional study in the Dutch community. Health Psychol
2004; 23: 49–57.CrossRefPubMed
Sullivan MJL, Stanish WD. Psychologically based occupational rehabilitation: The Pain-Disability Prevention Program. Clin J Pain
2003; 19: 97–104.CrossRefPubMed
Jensen MP, Turner JA, Romano JM. Correlates of improvement in multidisciplinary treatment of chronic pain. J Consult Clin Psychol
1994; 62: 172–179.CrossRefPubMed
Waddell G, Newton M, Henderson I, Somerville D, Main CJ. A Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) and the role of fear-avoidance beliefs in chronic low back pan and disability. Pain
1993; 52: 157–168.CrossRefPubMed
van der Giezen AM, Bouter LM, Nijhuis FJN. Prediction of return-to-work of low back pain patients sick listed for 3–4 months. Pain
2000; 87: 285–294.CrossRefPubMed
Coia P, Morley S. Medical reassurance and patients’ responses. J Psychosom Res
1998; 45: 377–386.CrossRefPubMed
Pfingsten M, Hildebrandt J, Leibing E, Franz C, Saur P. Effectiveness of a multimodal treatment program for chronic low-back pain. Pain
1997; 73: 77–85.CrossRefPubMed
Feuerstein M, Shaw WS, Lincoln AE, Miller VL, Wood PM. Clinical and workplace factors associated with a return to modified duty in work-related upper extremity disorders. Pain
2003; 102: 51–61.CrossRefPubMed
Hildebrandt J, Pfingsten M, Saur P, Jansen J. Prediction of success from a multidisciplinary treatment program for chronic pain. Spine
1997; 22: 990–1001.CrossRefPubMed
Banks SM, Kerns RD. Explaining high rates of depression in chronic pain: A diathesis-stress framework. Psychol Bull
1996; 119: 95–100.CrossRef
Sullivan MJL, Reesor K, Mikail S, Fisher R. The treatment of depression in chronic low back pain: Review and recommendations. Pain
1992; 50: 5–13.CrossRefPubMed
Romano JM, Turner JA. Chronic pain and depression: does the evidence support a relationship? Psychol Bull
1985; 97: 18–34.CrossRefPubMed
Rush AJ, Polatin P, Gatchel RJ. Depression and chronic low back pain. Spine
2000; 25: 2566–2571.CrossRefPubMed
Burns JW, Kubilus A, Bruehl S, Harden RN, Lofland K. Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol
2003; 71: 81–91.CrossRefPubMed
Hurwitz EL, Morgenstern H, Yu F. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of low-back pain and associated disability with psychological distress among patients enrolled in the UCLA Low Back Pain Study. J Clin Epidemiol
2003; 56: 463–471.CrossRefPubMed
Sullivan MJL, Stanish W, Sullivan ME, Tripp D. Differential predictors of pain and disability in patients with whiplash injuries. Pain Res Manag
2002; 7: 68–74.PubMed
Watson PJ, Booker CK, Moores L, Main CJ. Returning the chronically unemployed with low back pain to employment. Eur J Pain
2004; 8: 359–369.CrossRefPubMed
Vowles KE, Gross RT, Sorrell JT. Predicting work status following interdisciplinary treatment for chronic pain. Eur J Pain
2004; 8: 351–358.CrossRefPubMed
Kori SH, Miller RP, Todd DD. Kinesophobia: A new view of chronic pain behavior. Pain Manag 1990; Jan, 35–43.
Vlaeyen JWS, Kole-Snijders AMJ, Rotteveel A, Ruesink R, Heuts PHTG. The role of fear of movement/(re)injury in pain disability. J Occup Rehab 1995; 5: 235–252.
Sullivan MJL, Bishop S, Pivik J. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale: Development and validation. Psychol Assessm
1995; 7: 524–532.CrossRef
Pollard CA. Preliminary validity study of the Pain Disability Index. Percept Motor Skills
1984; 59: 974.PubMed
Tait RC, Pollard CA, Margolis RB, Duckro PN, Krause SJ. The Pain Disability Index: Psychometric and validity data. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1987; 68: 438–441.
Tait RC, Chibnall JT, Krause S. The Pain Disability Index: Psychometric properties. Pain
1990; 14: 171–182.CrossRef
Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory — II. San Antonio TX: Psychological Corporation, 1996.
Bishop SR, Edgley K, Fisher R, Sullivan MJL. Screening for depression in chronic low back pain with the Beck Depression Inventory. Can J Rehab 1993; 7: 143–148.
Arnau RC, Meagher MW, Norris MP, Bramson R. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory II with primary care medical patients. Health Psychol
2001; 20: 112–119.CrossRefPubMed
Melzack R. The McGill Pain Questionnaire. Pain 1975; 1: 272–299.
Turk DC, Rudy TE, Salovey P. The McGill Pain Questionnaire reconsidered: Confirming the factor analysis and examining appropriate uses. Pain
1985; 21: 385–397.CrossRefPubMed
Nagelkerke NJD. A note on a general definition of the coefficient of determination. Biometrika 1991; 78: 691–692.
Shaw WS, Feuerstein M, Lincoln AE, Miller VI, Wood PM. Ergonomic and psychosocial factors affect daily function in Worker’s Compensation claimants with persistent upper extremity disorders. J Occup Environ Med
2002; 44: 606–615.PubMed
Shaw WS, Feuerstein M. Generating workplace accommodations: Lessons learned from the Integrated Case Management Study. J Occup Rehab
2004; 14: 207–216.CrossRef
Linton SJ, Boersma K. Early identification of patients at risk for developing a persistent back problem: The predictive validity of the Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire. Clin J Pain
2003; 19: 80–86.CrossRefPubMed
Feuerstein M, Nicholas RA, Huang GD, Dimberg L, Ali D, Rogers H. Job stress management and ergonomic intervention for work-related upper extremity disorders. Appl Ergonom
2004; 35: 565–574.CrossRef