Journal of Medical Systems

, Volume 36, Issue 5, pp 3151–3162

Automated Detection of Dark and Bright Lesions in Retinal Images for Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10916-011-9802-2

Cite this article as:
Akram, U.M. & Khan, S.A. J Med Syst (2012) 36: 3151. doi:10.1007/s10916-011-9802-2


There is an ever-increasing interest in the development of automatic medical diagnosis systems due to the advancement in computing technology and also to improve the service by medical community. The knowledge about health and disease is required for reliable and accurate medical diagnosis. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of blindness and it can be prevented if detected and treated early. DR has different signs and the most distinctive are microaneurysm and haemorrhage which are dark lesions and hard exudates and cotton wool spots which are bright lesions. Location and structure of blood vessels and optic disk play important role in accurate detection and classification of dark and bright lesions for early detection of DR. In this article, we propose a computer aided system for the early detection of DR. The article presents algorithms for retinal image preprocessing, blood vessel enhancement and segmentation and optic disk localization and detection which eventually lead to detection of different DR lesions using proposed hybrid fuzzy classifier. The developed methods are tested on four different publicly available databases. The presented methods are compared with recently published methods and the results show that presented methods outperform all others.


Diabetic retinopathy Preprocessing Blood vessels Optic disk Dark lesions Bright lesions 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Engineering, College of Electrical & Mechanical EngineeringNational University of Sciences and TechnologyRawalpindiPakistan

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