Original Paper

Journal of Medical Systems

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 1065-1094

A Comprehensive Survey of Wireless Body Area Networks

On PHY, MAC, and Network Layers Solutions
  • Sana UllahAffiliated withUWB-ITRC Research Center, Inha University
  • , Henry HigginsAffiliated withZarlink Semiconductors
  • , Bart BraemAffiliated withDepartment of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Antwerp/IBBT
  • , Benoit LatreAffiliated withDepartment of Information Technology, Ghent University/IBBT
  • , Chris BlondiaAffiliated withDepartment of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Antwerp/IBBT
  • , Ingrid MoermanAffiliated withDepartment of Information Technology, Ghent University/IBBT
  • , Shahnaz SaleemAffiliated withUWB-ITRC Research Center, Inha University Email author 
  • , Ziaur RahmanAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)
  • , Kyung Sup KwakAffiliated withUWB-ITRC Research Center, Inha University

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Abstract

Recent advances in microelectronics and integrated circuits, system-on-chip design, wireless communication and intelligent low-power sensors have allowed the realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN is a collection of low-power, miniaturized, invasive/non-invasive lightweight wireless sensor nodes that monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. In addition, it supports a number of innovative and interesting applications such as ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, interactive gaming, and military applications. In this paper, the fundamental mechanisms of WBAN including architecture and topology, wireless implant communication, low-power Medium Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols are reviewed. A comprehensive study of the proposed technologies for WBAN at Physical (PHY), MAC, and Network layers is presented and many useful solutions are discussed for each layer. Finally, numerous WBAN applications are highlighted.

Keywords

Implant communication Physical WBAN MAC Networking Routing Survey