Noncoding RNAs Involved in Mammary Gland Development and Tumorigenesis: There’s a Long Way to Go

  • Amy N. Shore
  • Jason I. Herschkowitz
  • Jeffrey M. Rosen
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10911-012-9247-3

Cite this article as:
Shore, A.N., Herschkowitz, J.I. & Rosen, J.M. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia (2012) 17: 43. doi:10.1007/s10911-012-9247-3

Abstract

The mammalian genome encodes thousands of noncoding RNAs. These noncoding transcripts are broadly categorized into short noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of greater than 200 nt. While the role of miRNAs in development and cancer biology has been extensively studied, much less is known about the vast majority of noncoding transcripts represented by lncRNAs. LncRNAs are emerging as key regulators of developmental processes and as such, their frequent misregulation in tumorigenesis and disease in not unexpected. The role of lncRNAs in mammary gland development and breast cancer is just beginning to be elucidated. This review will discuss the role of lncRNAs in mammalian and mammary gland development. In addition, we will review the contributions of lncRNAs to the stepwise progression of tumorigenesis, highlighting the role of lncRNAs in breast cancer.

Keywords

Noncoding RNA Mammary gland development Alveologenesis Epigenetics Breast cancer 

Abbreviations

miRNA

microRNA

lncRNA

long/large noncoding RNA

lincRNA

long/large intergenic noncoding RNA

PRC2

polycomb repressive complex-2

CoREST

co-repressor for REST

REST

repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor

MLL1

mixed lineage leukemia 1

Xist

X-inactive specific transcript

RepA

Repeat A

Kcnq1ot1

Kcnq1 overlapping transcript 1

Airn

antisense Igf2r RNA noncoding

mESC

mouse embryonic stem cell

Oct4

octamer-binding transcription factor 4

Sox2

SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2

EGO

eosinophil granule ontogeny

HOTAIRM1

HOX antisense intergenic RNA myeloid 1

LincRNA-EPS

lincRNA erythroid prosurvival 1

Evf2

embryonic ventral forebrain 1

GABA

gamma-aminobutryic acid

Tug1

taurine-upregulated gene 1

RNCR

retinal noncoding RNA

MIAT

myocardial infarction associated transcript

ceRNA

competing endogenous RNA

ANCR

anti-differentiation noncoding RNA

SRA

steroid receptor RNA activator

MMTV

mouse mammary tumor virus

PINC

pregnancy induced noncoding RNA

Zfas1

Znfx1 antisense RNA 1

mPINC1.0

mouse pregnancy induced noncoding RNA 1.0 Kb

mPINC1.6

mouse pregnancy induced noncoding RNA 1.6 Kb

RbAp46

retinoblastoma associated protein 46

Znfx1

zinc finger, NFX1-type containing 1

snoRNA

small nucleolar RNA

TCGA

the cancer genome atlas

Shh

sonic hedgehog

BMP

bone morphogenetic protein

MALAT1

metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1

ER

estrogen receptor

PR

progesterone receptor

AGO2

argonaute 2

UCR

ultraconserved region

GWAS

genome-wide association study

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amy N. Shore
    • 1
  • Jason I. Herschkowitz
    • 2
  • Jeffrey M. Rosen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Program in Developmental BiologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular and Cellular BiologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA