Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 81–91

Regulation of Prolactin Receptor Levels and Activity in Breast Cancer

Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10911-008-9068-6

Cite this article as:
Swaminathan, G., Varghese, B. & Fuchs, S.Y. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia (2008) 13: 81. doi:10.1007/s10911-008-9068-6

Abstract

From its traditional identity as a hormone involved in growth and differentiation of mammary epithelium and in lactation, to having a pertinent role in the development of mammary carcinoma, the peptide hormone/cytokine prolactin (PRL) has emerged as a versatile signaling molecule. There has been significant progress in our understanding of the fine working of PRL in the past several years. Notably, much effort has been concentrated on the mediator of PRL action, namely, the prolactin receptor (PRLr). The causal link between increased PRLr expression and breast cancer is being increasingly appreciated. Considering that the level of the receptor on the surface is a critical determinant of signaling output in response to PRL, the uncovering of regulatory elements that control receptor expression becomes important. The principle focus of this review is on the regulation of PRLr expression and activity in breast cancer with a brief overview of different isoforms of PRLr, their expression, signaling capabilities and the biological outcomes of PRL/PRLr signaling.

Keywords

Prolactin receptorUbiquitinationBreast cancerEndocytosisRegulationSignaling

Abbreviations

PRLr

prolactin receptor

PRL

prolactin

Jak

Janus kinase

GEF

guanine nucleotide exchange factor

ECD

extracellular domain

ICD

intracellular domain

TM

transmembrane domain

FAK

focal adhesion kinase

EGFR

epidermal growth factor receptor

PRLBP

Prolactin binding protein

E2

estradiol

ER

estrogen receptor

ANA

anandamide

TCDD

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

Ah

aryl hydrocarbon

GHR

growth hormone receptor

EpoR

erythropoietin receptor

IFNAR1

type I interferon receptor

TpoR

thrombopoietin receptor

RTK

receptor tyrosine kinase

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Biology and Mari Lowe Center for Comparative Oncology ResearchUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Biomedical Graduate SchoolUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA